Season’s greetings. As some of you already know, we are
starting the campus food drive. This is how you participate.
You can bring your items for donation to our booths. Our
donation booths are located in the lobbies of the campus
libraries. Just drop off the items there during usual library
hours from December 4 to 23. The donated food should be
non-perishable like canned meats and canned fruits. Packaged
goods such as jam and peanut butter are also good. We will
distribute the food to our neighbors on Christmas Eve. We
truly appreciate your help.
Joanna at Campus Food Bank
Once again, I had lost the piano contest to my friend. When
I learned that Linda had won, I was deeply troubled and
unhappy. My body was shaking with uneasiness. My heart
beat quickly and my face became reddish. I had to run out of
the concert hall to settle down. Sitting on the stairs alone, I
recalled what my teacher had said. “Life is about winning, not
necessarily about winning against others but winning at being
you. And the way to win is to figure out who you are and do
your best.” He was absolutely right. I had no reason to oppose
my friend. Instead, I should focus on myself and my own
improvement. I breathed out slowly. My hands were steady
now. At last, my mind was at peace.
Developing expertise carries costs of its own. We can
become experts in some areas, like speaking a language or
knowing our favorite foods, simply by living our lives, but in
many other domains expertise requires considerable training
and effort. What’s more, expertise is domain specific. The
expertise that we work hard to acquire in one domain will
carry over only imperfectly to related ones, and not at all to
unrelated ones. In the end, as much as we may want to become
experts on everything in our lives, there simply isn’t enough
time to do so. Even in areas where we could, it won’t
necessarily be worth the effort. It’s clear that we should
concentrate our own expertise on those domains of choice that
are most common and/or important to our lives, and those we
actively enjoy learning about and choosing from.
There is an African proverb that says, ‘Till the lions have
their historians, tales of hunting will always glorify the hunter’.
The proverb is about power, control and law making.
Environmental journalists have to play the role of the ‘lion’s
historians’. They have to put across the point of view of the
environment to people who make the laws. They have to be the
voice of wild India. The present rate of human consumption is
completely unsustainable. Forest, wetlands, wastelands, coastal
zones, eco-sensitive zones, they are all seen as disposable for
the accelerating demands of human population. But to ask for
any change in human behaviour ― whether it be to cut down on
consumption, alter lifestyles or decrease population growth ―
is seen as a violation of human rights. But at some point human
rights become ‘wrongs’. It’s time we changed our thinking so
that there is no difference between the rights of humans and the
rights of the rest of the environment.
Prior to file-sharing services, music albums landed exclusively
in the hands of music critics before their release. These critics
would listen to them well before the general public could and
preview them for the rest of the world in their reviews. Once
the internet made music easily accessible and allowed even
advanced releases to spread through online social networks,
availability of new music became democratized, which meant
critics no longer had unique access. That is, critics and
laypeople alike could obtain new music simultaneously. Social
media services also enabled people to publicize their views on
new songs, list their new favorite bands in their social media
bios, and argue over new music endlessly on message boards.
The result was that critics now could access the opinions of the
masses on a particular album before writing their reviews.
Thus, instead of music reviews guiding popular opinion toward
art (as they did in preinternet times), music reviews began to
reflect ― consciously or subconsciously ― public opinion.
* laypeople: 비전문가
Difficulties arise when we do not think of people and
machines as collaborative systems, but assign whatever tasks
can be automated to the machines and leave the rest to people.
This ends up requiring people to behave in machine-like
fashion, in ways that differ from human capabilities. We
expect people to monitor machines, which means keeping alert
for long periods, something we are bad at. We require people
to do repeated operations with the extreme precision and
accuracy required by machines, again something we are not
good at. When we divide up the machine and human
components of a task in this way, we fail to take advantage of
human strengths and capabilities but instead rely upon areas
where we are genetically, biologically unsuited. Yet, when
people fail, they are blamed.
People don’t usually think of touch as a temporal
phenomenon, but it is every bit as time-based as it is spatial.
You can carry out an experiment to see for yourself. Ask a
friend to cup his hand, palm face up, and close his eyes. Place
a small ordinary object in his palm ― a ring, an eraser,
anything will do ― and ask him to identify it without moving
any part of his hand. He won’t have a clue other than weight
and maybe overall size. Then tell him to keep his eyes closed
and move his fingers over the object. He’ll most likely identify
it at once. By allowing the fingers to move, you’ve added time
to the sensory perception of touch. There’s a direct analogy
between the fovea at the center of your retina and your
fingertips, both of which have high acuity. Your ability to
make complex use of touch, such as buttoning your shirt or
unlocking your front door in the dark, depends on continuous
time-varying patterns of touch sensation.
* analogy: 유사 ** fovea: (망막의) 중심와(窩) *** retina: 망막
The graph above shows the online shares of retail sales for
each of six countries in 2012 and in 2019. The online share of
retail sales refers to the percentage of retail sales conducted
online in a given country. ① For each country, its online share
of retail sales in 2019 was larger than that in 2012. ② Among
the six countries, the UK owned the largest online share of retail
sales with 19.7% in 2019. ③ In 2019, the U.S. had the second
largest online share of retail sales with 16.5%. ④ In 2012, the
online share of retail sales in the Netherlands was larger than
that in France, whereas the reverse was true in 2019. ⑤ In the
case of Spain and Italy, the online share of retail sales in each
country was less than 5.0% both in 2012 and in 2019.
Frank Hyneman Knight was one of the most influential
economists of the twentieth century. After obtaining his Ph.D.
in 1916 at Cornell University, Knight taught at Cornell, the
University of Iowa, and the University of Chicago. Knight
spent most of his career at the University of Chicago. Some of
his students at Chicago later received the Nobel Prize. Knight
is known as the author of the book Risk, Uncertainty and Profit,
a study of the role of the entrepreneur in economic life. He also
wrote a brief introduction to economics entitled The Economic
Organization, which became a classic of microeconomic theory.
But Knight was much more than an economist; he was also a
social philosopher. Later in his career, Knight developed his
theories of freedom, democracy, and ethics. After retiring in 1952,
Knight remained active in teaching and writing.
* entrepreneur: 기업가
Regulations covering scientific experiments on human subjects
are strict. Subjects must give their informed, written consent,
and experimenters must submit their proposed experiments to
thorough examination by overseeing bodies. Scientists who
experiment on themselves can, functionally if not legally, avoid
the restrictions ① associated with experimenting on other people.
They can also sidestep most of the ethical issues involved:
nobody, presumably, is more aware of an experiment’s potential
hazards than the scientist who devised ② it. Nonetheless,
experimenting on oneself remains ③ deeply problematic. One
obvious drawback is the danger involved; knowing that it
exists ④ does nothing to reduce it. A less obvious drawback is
the limited range of data that the experiment can generate.
Human anatomy and physiology vary, in small but significant
ways, according to gender, age, lifestyle, and other factors.
Experimental results derived from a single subject are, therefore,
of limited value; there is no way to know ⑤ what the subject’s
responses are typical or atypical of the response of humans as a
* consent: 동의 ** anatomy: (해부학적) 구조
*** physiology: 생리적 현상
How the bandwagon effect occurs is demonstrated by the
history of measurements of the speed of light. Because this
speed is the basis of the theory of relativity, it’s one of the
most frequently and carefully measured ① quantities in science.
As far as we know, the speed hasn’t changed over time.
However, from 1870 to 1900, all the experiments found speeds
that were too high. Then, from 1900 to 1950, the ② opposite
happened ― all the experiments found speeds that were too
low! This kind of error, where results are always on one side of
the real value, is called “bias.” It probably happened because
over time, experimenters subconsciously adjusted their results
to ③ match what they expected to find. If a result fit what
they expected, they kept it. If a result didn’t fit, they threw it out.
They weren’t being intentionally dishonest, just ④ influenced
by the conventional wisdom. The pattern only changed when
someone ⑤ lacked the courage to report what was actually
measured instead of what was expected.
* bandwagon effect: 편승 효과
In the classic model of the Sumerian economy, the temple
functioned as an administrative authority governing commodity
production, collection, and redistribution. The discovery of
administrative tablets from the temple complexes at Uruk
suggests that token use and consequently writing evolved as a
tool of centralized economic governance. Given the lack of
archaeological evidence from Uruk-period domestic sites, it is
not clear whether individuals also used the system for
____________________. For that matter, it is not clear
how widespread literacy was at its beginnings. The use of
identifiable symbols and pictograms on the early tablets is
consistent with administrators needing a lexicon that was
mutually intelligible by literate and nonliterate parties. As
cuneiform script became more abstract, literacy must have
become increasingly important to ensure one understood what
he or she had agreed to.
* archaeological: 고고학적인 ** lexicon: 어휘 목록
*** cuneiform script: 쐐기 문자
Choosing similar friends can have a rationale. Assessing
the survivability of an environment can be risky (if an
environment turns out to be deadly, for instance, it might be
too late by the time you found out), so humans have evolved
the desire to associate with similar individuals as a way to
perform this function efficiently. This is especially useful to a
species that lives in so many different sorts of environments.
However, the carrying capacity of a given environment
____________________. If resources
are very limited, the individuals who live in a particular place
cannot all do the exact same thing (for example, if there are
few trees, people cannot all live in tree houses, or if mangoes
are in short supply, people cannot all live solely on a diet of
mangoes). A rational strategy would therefore sometimes be to
avoid similar members of one’s species.
Thanks to newly developed neuroimaging technology, we
now have access to the specific brain changes that occur during
learning. Even though all of our brains contain the same basic
structures, our neural networks are as unique as our fingerprints.
The latest developmental neuroscience research has shown
that the brain is much more malleable throughout life than
previously assumed; it develops in response to its own
processes, to its immediate and distant “environments,” and
to its past and current situations. The brain seeks to create
meaning through establishing or refining existing neural
networks. When we learn a new fact or skill, our neurons
communicate to form networks of connected information. Using
this knowledge or skill results in structural changes to allow
similar future impulses to travel more quickly and efficiently
than others. High-activity synaptic connections are stabilized
and strengthened, while connections with relatively low use are
weakened and eventually pruned. In this way, our brains are
* malleable: 순응성이 있는 ** prune: 잘라 내다
Successful integration of an educational technology is
marked by that technology being regarded by users as an
unobtrusive facilitator of learning, instruction, or performance.
When the focus shifts from the technology being used to the
educational purpose that technology serves, then that
technology is becoming a comfortable and trusted element,
and can be regarded as being successfully integrated. Few
people give a second thought to the use of a ball-point pen
although the mechanisms involved vary ― some use a twist
mechanism and some use a push button on top, and there are
other variations as well. Personal computers have reached a
similar level of familiarity for a great many users, but certainly
not for all. New and emerging technologies often introduce
both fascination and frustration with users. As long as
promoting learning, instruction, or performance, then one
ought not to conclude that the technology has been successfully
integrated ― at least for that user.
* unobtrusive: 눈에 띄지 않는
Workers are united by laughing at shared events, even ones
that may initially spark anger or conflict. Humor reframes
potentially divisive events into merely “laughable” ones which
are put in perspective as subservient to unifying values held
by organization members. Repeatedly recounting humorous
incidents reinforces unity based on key organizational values.
① One team told repeated stories about a dumpster fire,
something that does not seem funny on its face, but the
reactions of workers motivated to preserve safety sparked
laughter as the stories were shared multiple times by multiple
parties in the workplace. ② Shared events that cause laughter
can indicate a sense of belonging since “you had to be there”
to see the humor in them, and non-members were not and do
not. ③ Since humor can easily capture people’s attention,
commercials tend to contain humorous elements, such as funny
faces and gestures. ④ Instances of humor serve to enact bonds
among organization members. ⑤ Understanding the humor may
even be required as an informal badge of membership in the
* subservient: 도움이 되는
The objective of battle, to “throw” the enemy and to
make him defenseless, may temporarily blind commanders
and even strategists to the larger purpose of war. War is
never an isolated act, nor is it ever only one decision.
* entity: 실체 ** transcend: 초월하다
Experts have identified a large number of measures that
promote energy efficiency. Unfortunately many of them are
not cost effective. This is a fundamental requirement for
energy efficiency investment from an economic perspective.
* repercussion: 반향, 영향 ** aggregate: 집합의
Imagine I tell you that Maddy is bad. Perhaps you infer from
my intonation, or the context in which we are talking, that I
mean morally bad. Additionally, you will probably infer that I
am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that I think you should
disapprove of her, or similar, given typical linguistic conventions
and assuming I am sincere. ( ① ) However, you might not
get a more detailed sense of the particular sorts of way in
which Maddy is bad, her typical character traits, and the like,
since people can be bad in many ways. ( ② ) In contrast, if I
say that Maddy is wicked, then you get more of a sense of her
typical actions and attitudes to others. ( ③ ) The word ‘wicked’
is more specific than ‘bad’. ( ④ ) But there is more detail
nevertheless, perhaps a stronger connotation of the sort of
person Maddy is. ( ⑤ ) In addition, and again assuming
typical linguistic conventions, you should also get a sense that
I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that you should
disapprove of her, or similar, assuming that we are still
discussing her moral character.
* connotation: 함축
Designers draw on their experience of design when approaching
a new project. This includes the use of previous designs that they
know work ― both designs that they have created themselves and
those that others have created. ( ① ) Others’ creations often spark
inspiration that also leads to new ideas and innovation. ( ② ) This
is well known and understood. ( ③ ) However, the expression
of an idea is protected by copyright, and people who infringe on
that copyright can be taken to court and prosecuted. ( ④ ) This
means, for example, that while there are numerous smartphones
all with similar functionality, this does not represent an
infringement of copyright as the idea has been expressed in
different ways and it is the expression that has been
copyrighted. ( ⑤ ) Copyright is free and is automatically
invested in the author, for instance, the writer of a book or a
programmer who develops a program, unless they sign the
copyright over to someone else.
* infringe: 침해하다 ** prosecute: 기소하다
From a cross-cultural perspective the equation between
public leadership and dominance is questionable. What does
one mean by ‘dominance’? Does it indicate coercion? Or
control over ‘the most valued’? ‘Political’ systems may be
about both, either, or conceivably neither. The idea of
‘control’ would be a bothersome one for many peoples, as
for instance among many native peoples of Amazonia where
all members of a community are fond of their personal
autonomy and notably allergic to any obvious expression of
control or coercion. The conception of political power as a
coercive force, while it may be a Western fixation, is not a
universal. It is very unusual for an Amazonian leader to give
an order. If many peoples do not view political power as a
coercive force, nor as the most valued domain, then the leap
from ‘the political’ to ‘domination’ (as coercion), and from
there to ‘domination of women’, is a shaky one. As Marilyn
Strathern has remarked, the notions of ‘the political’ and
‘political personhood’ are cultural obsessions of our own, a
bias long reflected in anthropological constructs.
* coercion: 강제 ** autonomy: 자율 *** anthropological: 인류학의.
Our irresistible tendency to see things in human terms ―
that we are often mistaken in attributing complex human
motives and processing abilities to other species ― does not
mean that an animal’s behavior is not, in fact, complex.
Rather, it means that the complexity of the animal’s behavior
is not purely a (a) product of its internal complexity. Herbert
Simon’s “parable of the ant” makes this point very clearly.
Imagine an ant walking along a beach, and (b) visualize
tracking the trajectory of the ant as it moves. The trajectory
would show a lot of twists and turns, and would be very
irregular and complicated. One could then suppose that the ant
had equally complicated (c) internal navigational abilities,
and work out what these were likely to be by analyzing the
trajectory to infer the rules and mechanisms that could produce
such a complex navigational path. The complexity of the
trajectory, however, “is really a complexity in the surface of
the beach, not a complexity in the ant.” In reality, the ant may
be using a set of very (d) complex rules: it is the interaction
of these rules with the environment that actually produces the
complex trajectory, not the ant alone. Put more generally, the
parable of the ant illustrates that there is no necessary
correlation between the complexity of an (e) observed behavior
and the complexity of the mechanism that produces it.
* parable: 우화 ** trajectory: 이동 경로
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