My name is Danielle Hamilton, and I am the principal of
Techville High School. As you may know, there is major
road construction scheduled to take place in front of our
school next month. This raises safety concerns. Therefore,
we are asking for parent volunteers to help with directing
traffic. The volunteer hours are from 8:00 to 8:30 a.m. and
from 4:30 to 5:00 p.m. on school days. If you are willing to
take part in the traffic safety volunteer group, please email
us with your preferred schedule at email@example.com.
Your participation will be helpful in building a safer school
environment for our students. Thank you in advance for
The day trip to Midtown scheduled for today was canceled
because the road leading there was blocked by heavy snow.
“Luck just didn’t run my way. Sightseeing in Midtown was
why I signed up for this trip ...” Nancy said to herself, with a
long sigh. She was thinking of all the interesting sights she
wouldn’t be able to enjoy. All of a sudden, there was a knock
at the door. “News! We are going to the Pland Zoo near the
hotel. We will meet in the lobby soon.” It was the voice of her
tour guide. She sprung off the couch and started putting on her
coat in a hurry. “The Pland Zoo! That’s on my bucket list!
What a turn of fortune!” shouted Nancy.
Confident is not the same as comfortable. One of the biggest
misconceptions about becoming self-confident is that it means
living fearlessly. The key to building confidence is quite the
opposite. It means we are willing to let fear be present as we do
the things that matter to us. When we establish some
self-confidence in something, it feels good. We want to stay
there and hold on to it. But if we only go where we feel
confident, then confidence never expands beyond that. If we
only do the things we know we can do well, fear of the new and
unknown tends to grow. Building confidence inevitably demands
that we make friends with vulnerability because it is the only
way to be without confidence for a while. But the only way
confidence can grow is when we are willing to be without it.
When we can step into fear and sit with the unknown, it is the
courage of doing so that builds confidence from the ground up.
* vulnerability: 취약성
Gold plating in the project means needlessly enhancing the
expected results, namely, adding characteristics that are costly,
not required, and that have low added value with respect to the
targets ― in other words, giving more with no real justification
other than to demonstrate one’s own talent. Gold plating is
especially interesting for project team members, as it is typical
of projects with a marked professional component ― in other
words, projects that involve specialists with proven experience
and extensive professional autonomy. In these environments
specialists often see the project as an opportunity to test and enrich
their skill sets. There is therefore a strong temptation, in all
good faith, to engage in gold plating, namely, to achieve more
or higher-quality work that gratifies the professional but does
not add value to the client’s requests, and at the same time
removes valuable resources from the project. As the saying
goes, “The best is the enemy of the good.”
* autonomy: 자율성 ** gratify: 만족시키다
The need to assimilate values and lifestyle of the host culture
has become a growing conflict. Multiculturalists suggest that
there should be a model of partial assimilation in which
immigrants retain some of their customs, beliefs, and language.
There is pressure to conform rather than to maintain their cultural
identities, however, and these conflicts are greatly determined by
the community to which one migrates. These experiences are not
new; many Europeans experienced exclusion and poverty during
the first two waves of immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Eventually, these immigrants transformed this country with
significant changes that included enlightenment and acceptance of
diversity. People of color, however, continue to struggle for
acceptance. Once again, the challenge is to recognize that other
cultures think and act differently and that they have the right to do
so. Perhaps, in the not too distant future, immigrants will no
longer be strangers among us.
The primary purpose of commercial music radio broadcasting
is to deliver an audience to a group of advertisers and sponsors.
To achieve commercial success, that audience must be as large
as possible. More than any other characteristics (such as
demographic or psychographic profile, purchasing power, level
of interest, degree of satisfaction, quality of attention or
emotional state), the quantity of an audience aggregated as a
mass is the most significant metric for broadcasters seeking to
make music radio for profitable ends. As a result, broadcasters
attempt to maximise their audience size by playing music that is
popular, or ― at the very least ― music that can be relied upon
not to cause audiences to switch off their radio or change the
station. Audience retention is a key value (if not the key value)
for many music programmers and for radio station management.
In consequence, a high degree of risk aversion frequently marks
out the ‘successful’ radio music programmer. Playlists are
restricted, and often very small.
* aggregate: 모으다 ** aversion: 싫어함
Before the web, newspaper archives were largely the musty
domain of professional researchers and journalism students.
Journalism was, by definition, current. The general accessibility
of archives has greatly extended the shelf life of journalism,
with older stories now regularly cited to provide context for
more current ones. With regard to how meaning is made of
complex issues encountered in the news, this departure can be
understood as a readiness by online news consumers to engage
with the underlying issues and contexts of the news that was not
apparent in, or even possible for, print consumers. One of the
emergent qualities of online news, determined in part by the
depth of readily accessible online archives, seems to be the
possibility of understanding news stories as the manifest
outcomes of larger economic, social and cultural issues rather
than short-lived and unconnected media spectacles.
* archive: 기록 보관소 ** musty: 곰팡내 나는 *** manifest: 분명한
The table above shows the college enrollment rates of 18- to
24-year-olds from five racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. in
2011, 2016, and 2021. ① Among the five groups, Asians
exhibited the highest college enrollment rate with more than
50% in each year listed in the table. ② Whites were the
second highest in terms of the college enrollment rate among
all the groups in all three years, while the rate dropped below
40% in 2021. ③ The college enrollment rates of both Blacks
and Hispanics were higher than 35% but lower than 40% in
2011 and in 2021. ④ Among the years displayed in the table,
2016 was the only year when the college enrollment rate of
Hispanics was higher than that of Blacks. ⑤ In each year,
American Indians/Alaska Natives showed the lowest college
Charles Rosen, a virtuoso pianist and distinguished writer,
was born in New York in 1927. Rosen displayed a remarkable
talent for the piano from his early childhood. In 1951, the year
he earned his doctoral degree in French literature at Princeton
University, Rosen made both his New York piano debut and
his first recordings. To glowing praise, he appeared in numerous
recitals and orchestral concerts around the world. Rosen’s
performances impressed some of the 20th century’s most
well-known composers, who invited him to play their music.
Rosen was also the author of many widely admired books
about music. His most famous book, The Classical Style, was
first published in 1971 and won the U.S. National Book Award
the next year. This work, which was reprinted in an expanded
edition in 1997, remains a landmark in the field. While writing
extensively, Rosen continued to perform as a pianist for the
rest of his life until he died in 2012.
Viewing the stress response as a resource can transform the
physiology of fear into the biology of courage. It can turn a
threat into a challenge and can help you ① do your best under
pressure. Even when the stress doesn’t feel helpful ― as in the
case of anxiety ― welcoming it can transform ② it into
something that is helpful: more energy, more confidence, and
a greater willingness to take action. You can apply this
strategy in your own life anytime you notice signs of stress.
When you feel your heart beating or your breath quickening,
③ realizing that it is your body’s way of trying to give you
more energy. If you notice tension in your body, remind
yourself ④ that the stress response gives you access to your
strength. Sweaty palms? Remember what it felt like ⑤ to go
on your first date ― palms sweat when you’re close to
something you want.
* physiology: 생리 기능
Why is the value of place so important? From a historical
perspective, until the 1700s textile production was a hand
process using the fibers available within a ① particular
geographic region, for example, cotton, wool, silk, and flax.
Trade among regions ② increased the availability of these
fibers and associated textiles made from the fibers. The First
Industrial Revolution and subsequent technological advancements
in manufactured fibers ③ added to the fact that fibers and
textiles were no longer “place-bound.” Fashion companies
created and consumers could acquire textiles and products
made from textiles with little or no connection to where, how,
or by whom the products were made. This ④ countered a
disconnect between consumers and the products they use on a
daily basis, a loss of understanding and appreciation in the
skills and resources necessary to create these products, and an
associated disregard for the human and natural resources
necessary for the products’ creation. Therefore, renewing a
value on place ⑤ reconnects the company and the consumer
with the people, geography, and culture of a particular
* textile: 직물
In the post-World War II years after 1945, unparalleled
economic growth fueled a building boom and a massive
migration from the central cities to the new suburban areas.
The suburbs were far more dependent on the automobile,
signaling the shift from primary dependence on public
transportation to private cars. Soon this led to the construction
of better highways and freeways and the decline and even loss
of public transportation. With all of these changes came a
__________ of leisure. As more people owned their
own homes, with more space inside and lovely yards outside,
their recreation and leisure time was increasingly centered
around the home or, at most, the neighborhood. One major
activity of this home-based leisure was watching television.
No longer did one have to ride the trolly to the theater to
watch a movie; similar entertainment was available for free
and more conveniently from television.
* unparalleled: 유례없는
Many people create and share pictures and videos on the
Internet. The difficulty is finding what you want. Typically,
people want to search using words (rather than, say, example
sketches). Because most pictures don’t come with words
attached, it is natural to try and build tagging systems that tag
images with relevant words. The underlying machinery is
straightforward ― we apply image classification and object
detection methods and tag the image with the output words.
But tags aren’t __________.
It matters who is doing what, and tags don’t capture this. For
example, tagging a picture of a cat in the street with the object
categories “cat”, “street”, “trash can” and “fish bones” leaves
out the information that the cat is pulling the fish bones out of
an open trash can on the street.
An invention or discovery that is too far ahead of its time is
worthless; no one can follow. Ideally, an innovation opens up
only the next step from what is known and invites the culture to
move forward one hop. An overly futuristic, unconventional, or
visionary invention can fail initially (it may lack essential
not-yet-invented materials or a critical market or proper
understanding) yet succeed later, when the ecology of
supporting ideas catches up. Gregor Mendel’s 1865 theories of
genetic heredity were correct but ignored for 35 years. His sharp
insights were not accepted because they did not explain the
problems biologists had at the time, nor did his explanation
operate by known mechanisms, so his discoveries were out of
reach even for the early adopters. Decades later science faced
the urgent questions that Mendel’s discoveries could answer.
Now his insights __________. Within
a few years of one another, three different scientists each
independently rediscovered Mendel’s forgotten work, which of
course had been there all along.
* ecology: 생태 환경 ** heredity: 유전
Prior to photography, __________.
While painters have always lifted particular places out of their
‘dwelling’ and transported them elsewhere, paintings were
time-consuming to produce, relatively difficult to transport and
one-of-a-kind. The multiplication of photographs especially
took place with the introduction of the half-tone plate in
the 1880s that made possible the mechanical reproduction
of photographs in newspapers, periodicals, books and
advertisements. Photography became coupled to consumer
capitalism and the globe was now offered ‘in limitless
quantities, figures, landscapes, events which had not previously
been utilised either at all, or only as pictures for one customer’.
With capitalism’s arrangement of the world as a ‘department
store’, ‘the proliferation and circulation of representations ...
achieved a spectacular and virtually inescapable global
magnitude’. Gradually photographs became cheap mass-produced
objects that made the world visible, aesthetic and
desirable. Experiences were ‘democratised’ by translating them
into cheap images. Light, small and mass-produced
photographs became dynamic vehicles for the spatiotemporal
circulation of places.
* proliferation: 확산 ** magnitude: (큰) 규모 *** aesthetic: 미적인
Although organizations are offering telecommuting programs
in greater numbers than ever before, acceptance and use of these
programs are still limited by a number of factors. ① These
factors include manager reliance on face-to-face management
practices, lack of telecommuting training within an organization,
misperceptions of and discomfort with flexible workplace
programs, and a lack of information about the effects of
telecommuting on an organization’s bottom line. ② Despite
these limitations, at the beginning of the 21st century, a new
“anytime, anywhere” work culture is emerging. ③ Care must
be taken to select employees whose personal and working
characteristics are best suited for telecommuting. ④ Continuing
advances in information technology, the expansion of a global
workforce, and increased desire to balance work and family are
only three of the many factors that will gradually reduce the
current barriers to telecommuting as a dominant workforce
development. ⑤ With implications for organizational cost
savings, especially with regard to lower facility costs, increased
employee flexibility, and productivity, telecommuting is
increasingly of interest to many organizations.
* telecommute: (컴퓨터로) 집에서 근무하다
The intuitive ability to classify and generalize is
undoubtedly a useful feature of life and research, but it
carries a high cost, such as in our tendency to stereotype
generalizations about people and situations.
* intuitive: 직관적인 ** connotation: 함축
Plants show finely tuned adaptive responses when
nutrients are limiting. Gardeners may recognize yellow
leaves as a sign of poor nutrition and the need for fertilizer.
* nutrient: 영양소 ** fertilizer: 비료 *** forage: 구하러 다니다
The shift from analog to digital technology significantly
influenced how music was produced. First and foremost, the
digitization of sounds ― that is, their conversion into numbers ―
enabled music makers to undo what was done. ( ① ) One
could, in other words, twist and bend sounds toward
something new without sacrificing the original version. ( ② )
This “undo” ability made mistakes considerably less momentous,
sparking the creative process and encouraging a generally
more experimental mindset. ( ③ ) In addition, digitally converted
sounds could be manipulated simply by programming digital
messages rather than using physical tools, simplifying the
editing process significantly. ( ④ ) For example, while editing
once involved razor blades to physically cut and splice
audiotapes, it now involved the cursor and mouse-click of the
computer-based sequencer program, which was obviously less
time consuming. ( ⑤ ) This microlevel access at once made
it easier to conceal any traces of manipulations (such as
joining tracks in silent spots) and introduced new possibilities
for manipulating sounds in audible and experimental ways.
* binary: 2진법의 ** splice: 합쳐 잇다
Acknowledging the making of artworks does not require a
detailed, technical knowledge of, say, how painters mix
different kinds of paint, or how an image editing tool works.
( ① ) All that is required is a general sense of a significant
difference between working with paints and working with an
imaging application. ( ② ) This sense might involve a basic
familiarity with paints and paintbrushes as well as a basic
familiarity with how we use computers, perhaps including how
we use consumer imaging apps. ( ③ ) This is because every
kind of artistic material or tool comes with its own challenges
and affordances for artistic creation. ( ④ ) Critics are often
interested in the ways artists exploit different kinds of materials
and tools for particular artistic effect. ( ⑤ ) They are also
interested in the success of an artist’s attempt ― embodied in
the artwork itself ― to push the limits of what can be achieved
with certain materials and tools.
* affordance: 행위유발성 ** exploit: 활용하다
Research for historical fiction may focus on
under-documented ordinary people, events, or sites. Fiction
helps portray everyday situations, feelings, and atmosphere
that recreate the historical context. Historical fiction adds
“flesh to the bare bones that historians are able to uncover
and by doing so provides an account that while not
necessarily true provides a clearer indication of past events,
circumstances and cultures.” Fiction adds color, sound,
drama to the past, as much as it invents parts of the past.
And Robert Rosenstone argues that invention is not the
weakness of films, it is their strength. Fiction can allow
users to see parts of the past that have never ― for lack of
archives ― been represented. In fact, Gilden Seavey
explains that if producers of historical fiction had strongly
held the strict academic standards, many historical subjects
would remain unexplored for lack of appropriate evidence.
Historical fiction should, therefore, not be seen as the
opposite of professional history, but rather as a challenging
representation of the past from which both public historians
and popular audiences may learn.
One reason we think we forget most of what we learned in
school is that we underestimate what we actually remember.
Other times, we know we remember something, but we don’t
recognize that we learned it in school. Knowing where and
when you learned something is usually called context
information, and context is handled by (a) different memory
processes than memory for the content. Thus, it’s quite
possible to retain content without remembering the context.
For example, if someone mentions a movie and you think
to yourself that you heard it was terrible but can’t remember
(b) where you heard that, you’re recalling the content, but
you’ve lost the context. Context information is frequently
(c) easier to forget than content, and it’s the source of a variety
of memory illusions. For instance, people are (d) unconvinced
by a persuasive argument if it’s written by someone who is not
very credible (e.g., someone with a clear financial interest in
the topic). But in time, readers’ attitudes, on average, change
in the direction of the persuasive argument. Why? Because
readers are likely to remember the content of the argument but
forget the source ― someone who is not credible. If remembering
the source of knowledge is difficult, you can see how it would
be (e) challenging to conclude you don’t remember much
* illusion: 착각
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