통찰력 있는 피이쉐어, 한국 No.1
M Quiz 단어 문법 수능 작문 동화 소설

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2022학년도 수능 영어


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1. 다음을 듣고, 여자가 하는 말의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Hello, dog lovers. Does your dog chew up your shoes or bark for no reason at times? Is it hard to control your dog during walks? You no longer have to worry. We’ll help you solve these problems. At the Chester Dog Training Center, we have five professional certified trainers who will improve your dog’s behavior. We also teach you how to understand your dog and what to do when it misbehaves. Leave it to the Chester Dog Training Center. We’ll train your dog to become a well-behaved pet. Call us at 234-555-3647 or visit our website at www.chesterdogs.com.

 

 

2. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 의견으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Monica. Have you made plans for your trip to Busan?
W: Yes, Dad. I’m going to the beach and visiting an aquarium in the morning.
Then I’ll eat lunch at a fish market and go hiking.
M: Hold on! That sounds quite demanding.
W: You know, it’s my first trip after starting college.
M: I understand, but I think you shouldn’t plan too many things to do for a trip.
W: Well, I only have one day, and I want to experience as much as possible.
M: You’ll be worn out if you stick to your plan. Also, consider the time it takes to move to each place.
W: I guess you’re right. And there could be a long waiting line at some places.
M: Right. That’s why you shouldn’t fill your trip plan with too many things.
W: Okay. I’ll revise my plan.

 

 

3. 대화를 듣고, 두 사람의 관계를 가장 잘 나타낸 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Hello, Mr. Newton. Welcome to the Delicacies Show.
M: Thanks for inviting me.
W: I want to first start talking about your famous apple bread. Can you briefly introduce it to our radio show listeners?
M: Sure. Instead of sugar, I use home-made apple sauce when I bake bread.
W: That’s interesting. What inspired the recipe?
M: Well, one day, I saw a news report about local apple farmers. They were experiencing difficulty due to decreasing apple consumption.
W: So you created this new recipe to help the local economy.
M: Yes. I also thought that the apple’s sweetness could add a special flavor.
W: Sounds delicious. I’ll definitely go to your bakery and try some of your bread.
M: Actually, I brought some for you and your radio show staff.
W: Oh, thank you. We’ll be back after a commercial break.

 

 

4. 대화를 듣고, 그림에서 대화의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   
M: Wow, Ms. Peters! It looks like everything is ready for the exchange student welcoming ceremony.
W: Almost, Mr. Smith. What do you think?
M: It looks great. There’s a basket beside the stairs. What is it for?
W: We’re going to put flowers in it for the exchange students.
M: That’ll be nice. I like the striped tablecloth on the table. It makes the table look fancy.
W: Yeah, I’m going to put water bottles there. What do you think about the balloons next to the welcome banner?
M: They really brighten up the stage. Oh, look at the bear on the flag. It’s cute.
W: Yes. It’s the symbol of the exchange students’ school.
M: I see. And you set up two microphones.
W: It’s because there’ll be two MCs.
M: Good idea. Everything looks perfect.

 

 

5. 대화를 듣고, 남자가 할 일로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Brian. I’m so excited about our school club photo this Friday.
M: Me, too. The photo will be included in our graduation album. Let’s check our preparations for it.
W: All right. I’m going to decorate our club’s room with ribbons.
M: You said you’ll bring some from home, right?
W: Yes. When is the photographer coming?
M: The photographer is coming after lunch.
W: Great. That gives us time to get ready. You know I surveyed our club members about what to wear for the photo.
M: Right. What were the results?
W: Most of our members wanted to wear heart-shaped sunglasses. Now all that’s left is to buy them for our members.
M: I know a good online store. I can order the sunglasses.
W: Could you? That’ll be great.
M: No problem. I’ll take care of that.

 

 

6. 대화를 듣고, 여자가 지불할 금액을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Welcome to Daisy Valley Restaurant.
W: Hi. I’d like to order some food to go. How much is the shrimp pasta and the chicken salad?
M: The shrimp pasta is $20, and the chicken salad is $10.
W: I’ll take two shrimp pastas and one chicken salad, please.
M: Sure. Would you like some dessert, too?
W: Yes. What do you recommend?
M: The mini cheese cake is one of the best sellers in our restaurant. It’s $5 each.
W: Great! I’ll order two of them.
M: Okay. Let me confirm your order. Two shrimp pastas, one chicken salad, and two mini cheese cakes. Is that correct?
W: Yes. And I have a birthday coupon here. Can I use it?
M: Let me see. [Pause] Yes. You can get a 10% discount off the total.
W: Terrific. I’ll use this coupon. Here’s my credit card.

 

 

7. 대화를 듣고, 남자가 탁구 연습을 할 수 없는 이유를 고르시오.







답:   
W: Hey, Mike. How’s your shoulder? Are you still in pain?
M: No, I feel totally fine, Emily. I should be ready for the table tennis tournament.
W: That’s good to hear. Then do you want to practice with me now?
M: I’m sorry but I can’t right now.
W: Why not? Do you have to work on your history homework?
M: No, I already submitted it to Mr. Jackson.
W: Oh, then I guess you have to study for the science quiz, right?
M: I think I’m ready for it. Actually, I’m on my way to volunteer at the school library.
W: I see. Then, don’t forget about our drama club meeting tomorrow.
M: Of course not. See you there.

 

 

8. 대화를 듣고, Little Readers’ Class에 관해 언급되지 않은 것을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Christine, I heard your daughter Jennifer loves reading. Unfortunately, my daughter doesn’t.
W: Actually, Jennifer didn’t enjoy reading until she took the Little Readers’ Class. It provides various fun reading activities.
M: Really? It might be good for my daughter, too. Where’s it held?
W: It’s held at the Stonefield Library. I have a picture of the flyer somewhere in my phone. [Pause] Here.
M: Oh. The class is from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. every Monday.
W: Is that time okay for her?
M: Yeah, she’s free on Monday afternoons.
W: Great. The class is for children ages seven to nine. Your daughter is eight years old, right?
M: Yes, she can take it. So, to register, I should send an email to the address on the flyer.
W: That’s right. I hope the class gets your daughter into reading.

 

 

9. 2021 Family Science Festival에 관한 다음 내용을 듣고, 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Hello, WBPR listeners. Are you looking for a chance to enjoy quality family time? Then, we invite you to the 2021 Family Science Festival. It starts on December 7th and runs for one week at the Bermont Science Museum located near City Hall. Eight programs will be offered for parents and children to enjoy together, including robot building and VR simulations. We’ll also give out a children’s science magazine for free. This event is open to anyone, but remember that all children under age 11 must be accompanied by an adult. There’s no admission fee, but to participate, you must register in advance. Come and learn about the exciting world of science with your family. For more information, visit our website, www.wbpr.com.

 

 

10. 다음 표를 보면서 대화를 듣고, 두 사람이 예약할 스터디 룸을 고르시오.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   
M: Megan, did you reserve a study room for our group project meeting tomorrow?
W: I’m looking at a website to book a room. Let’s book it together.
M: Sure. [Pause] Oh, only these rooms are available.
W: Yeah. Hmm, this one is too small for us.
M: Right. We need a room big enough to accommodate six of us.
W: Okay. Now, let’s look at the times. We all agreed to meet after 1 p.m., right?
M: Yes. Then let’s skip this one.
W: How much can we spend on the study room?
M: Since we’re meeting for two hours, I don’t think we can spend more than $20 per hour. It’s beyond our budget.
W: Then, there are two options left. Should we choose a study room with a projector?
M: Absolutely. We’ll need it to practice for our presentation.
W: Then let’s reserve this one.

 

 

11. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 마지막 말에 대한 남자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Honey, I’m going out for a walk. Do you want to join me?
M: Sure. But can you wait for a moment? I have to send an email to one of my co-workers right now.
W: No problem. How long do you think it’ll take?
M:

 

 

12. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 마지막 말에 대한 여자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
[Telephone rings.]
M: Hello, this is Bob’s Camera Shop.
W: Hi, this is Clara Patterson. I’m calling to see if I can pick up my camera today.
M: Let me check. [Clicking sound] Yes. I’ve finished repairing your camera. It’s ready to go.
W:

 

 

13. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 마지막 말에 대한 남자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Man:







답:   
W: Honey, I’m home.
M: Is everything all right? You seem low on energy.
W: I am. I’m pretty burnt out.
M: It’s no wonder. You’ve been so stressed out from work these days.
W: Yeah, I can’t remember the last time that I really got to enjoy myself.
M: You need to recharge your batteries. Why don’t you spend some time alone this weekend?
W: Maybe you’re right. I might need my own personal time.
M: Yes. And don’t worry about the kids. I’ll take care of them.
W: Sounds good. Then let me think about what I can do.
M: You can go to the theater, ride your bike along the river, or do whatever makes you feel happy.
W: Well, there’s an exhibition that I’ve been interested in.
M:

 

 

14. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 마지막 말에 대한 여자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Woman:







답:   
[Telephone rings.]
M: Front desk. How may I help you?
W: I’m in Room 201. I specifically booked a non-smoking room, but I smell cigarette smoke in my room.
M: We’re sorry about that. Let me check that for you. [Typing sound] You’re Wendy Parker, right?
W: Yes, that’s correct.
M: Hmm, the record says we assigned you a non-smoking room.
W: Then why do I smell cigarette smoke here?
M: Well, since your room is close to the ground level, cigarette smoke must have come in from outside. Sorry for the inconvenience. Would you like to switch rooms?
W: Yes, please. The smell is really bothering me.
M: Let me first check if there are any rooms available.
W: If it’s possible, I’d like to move to a higher floor. Maybe higher than the 5th floor?
M: Okay. [Typing sound] Oh, we have one. Room 908 on the 9th floor is available.
W:

 

 

15. 다음 상황 설명을 듣고, Jason이 Sarah에게 할 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Jason:







답:   
W: Jason is a sculptor and Sarah is the head of a local library. A few days ago, Sarah hired Jason to create a sculpture for the library’s reopening by the end of next month. This morning, Sarah received the final design of the sculpture from Jason. She likes his design, but it looks quite complicated to her. She’s worried whether he can finish in time, so she calls him to express her concern. However, Jason thinks that he has enough time to make it since he has worked on these types of sculptures before. So Jason wants to tell Sarah that he can finish it in time and that she doesn’t have to be concerned. In this situation, what would Jason most likely say to Sarah?

 

 

16. 남자가 하는 말의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?







답:   
M: Good morning, students. You might think that math is all about boring formulas, but actually it involves much more. Today, we’ll learn how mathematics is used in the arts. First, let’s take music. Early mathematicians found that dividing or multiplying sound frequencies created different musical notes. Many musicians started applying this mathematical concept to make harmonized sounds. Second, painting frequently uses math concepts, particularly the “Golden Ratio.” Using this, great painters created masterpieces that display accurate proportions. The Mona Lisa is well-known for its accurate proportionality. Photography is another example of using mathematical ideas. Photographers divide their frames into 3 by 3 sections and place their subjects along the lines. By doing so, the photo becomes balanced, thus more pleasing. Lastly, dance applies mathematics to position dancers on the stage. In ballet, dancers calculate distances between themselves and other dancers, and adjust to the size of the stage. This gives the impression of harmonious movement. I hope you’ve gained a new perspective on mathematics.

 

 

17. 언급된 예술 분야가 아닌 것은?







답:   
M: Good morning, students. You might think that math is all about boring formulas, but actually it involves much more. Today, we’ll learn how mathematics is used in the arts. First, let’s take music. Early mathematicians found that dividing or multiplying sound frequencies created different musical notes. Many musicians started applying this mathematical concept to make harmonized sounds. Second, painting frequently uses math concepts, particularly the “Golden Ratio.” Using this, great painters created masterpieces that display accurate proportions. The Mona Lisa is well-known for its accurate proportionality. Photography is another example of using mathematical ideas. Photographers divide their frames into 3 by 3 sections and place their subjects along the lines. By doing so, the photo becomes balanced, thus more pleasing. Lastly, dance applies mathematics to position dancers on the stage. In ballet, dancers calculate distances between themselves and other dancers, and adjust to the size of the stage. This gives the impression of harmonious movement. I hope you’ve gained a new perspective on mathematics.

 

 

18. 다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Dear Ms. Green,

My name is Donna Williams, a science teacher at Rogan High School. I am planning a special workshop for our science teachers. We are interested in learning how to teach online science classes. I have been impressed with your ideas about using internet platforms for science classes. Since you are an expert in online education, I would like to ask you to deliver a special lecture at the workshop scheduled for next month. I am sure the lecture will help our teachers manage successful online science classes, and I hope we can learn from your insights. I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,

Donna Williams







답:   

 

 

19. 다음 글에 나타난 Evelyn의 심경 변화로 가장 적절한 것은?

It was Evelyn’s first time to explore the Badlands of Alberta, famous across Canada for its numerous dinosaur fossils. As a young amateur bone-hunter, she was overflowing with anticipation. She had not travelled this far for the bones of common dinosaur species. Her life-long dream to find rare fossils of dinosaurs was about to come true. She began eagerly searching for them. After many hours of wandering throughout the deserted lands, however, she was unsuccessful. Now, the sun was beginning to set, and her goal was still far beyond her reach. Looking at the slowly darkening ground before her, she sighed to herself, “I can’t believe I came all this way for nothing. What a waste of time!”







답:   

 

 

20. 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

One of the most common mistakes made by organizations when they first consider experimenting with social media is that they focus too much on social media tools and platforms and not enough on their business objectives. The reality of success in the social web for businesses is that creating a social media program begins not with insight into the latest social media tools and channels but with a thorough understanding of the organization’s own goals and objectives. A social media program is not merely the fulfillment of a vague need to manage a “presence” on popular social networks because “everyone else is doing it.” “Being in social media” serves no purpose in and of itself. In order to serve any purpose at all, a social media presence must either solve a problem for the organization and its customers or result in an improvement of some sort (preferably a measurable one). In all things, purpose drives success. The world of social media is no different.







답:   

 

 

21. 밑줄 친 whether to make ready for the morning commute or not이 다음 글에서 의미하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

Scientists have no special purchase on moral or ethical decisions; a climate scientist is no more qualified to comment on health care reform than a physicist is to judge the causes of bee colony collapse. The very features that create expertise in a specialized domain lead to ignorance in many others. In some cases lay people ― farmers, fishermen, patients, native peoples ― may have relevant experiences that scientists can learn from. Indeed, in recent years, scientists have begun to recognize this: the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment includes observations gathered from local native groups. So our trust needs to be limited, and focused. It needs to be very particular. Blind trust will get us into at least as much trouble as no trust at all. But without some degree of trust in our designated experts ― the men and women who have devoted their lives to sorting out tough questions about the natural world we live in ― we are paralyzed, in effect not knowing whether to make ready for the morning commute or not.

* lay: 전문가가 아닌 ** paralyze: 마비시키다 *** commute: 통근







답:   

 

 

22. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

Environmental hazards include biological, physical, and chemical ones, along with the human behaviors that promote or allow exposure. Some environmental contaminants are difficult to avoid (the breathing of polluted air, the drinking of chemically contaminated public drinking water, noise in open public spaces); in these circumstances, exposure is largely involuntary. Reduction or elimination of these factors may require societal action, such as public awareness and public health measures. In many countries, the fact that some environmental hazards are difficult to avoid at the individual level is felt to be more morally egregious than those hazards that can be avoided. Having no choice but to drink water contaminated with very high levels of arsenic, or being forced to passively breathe in tobacco smoke in restaurants, outrages people more than the personal choice of whether an individual smokes tobacco. These factors are important when one considers how change (risk reduction) happens.

* contaminate: 오염시키다 ** egregious: 매우 나쁜







답:   

 

 

23. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?

Scientists use paradigms rather than believing them. The use of a paradigm in research typically addresses related problems by employing shared concepts, symbolic expressions, experimental and mathematical tools and procedures, and even some of the same theoretical statements. Scientists need only understand how to use these various elements in ways that others would accept. These elements of shared practice thus need not presuppose any comparable unity in scientists’ beliefs about what they are doing when they use them. Indeed, one role of a paradigm is to enable scientists to work successfully without having to provide a detailed account of what they are doing or what they believe about it. Thomas Kuhn noted that scientists “can agree in their identification of a paradigm without agreeing on, or even attempting to produce, a full interpretation or rationalization of it. Lack of a standard interpretation or of an agreed reduction to rules will not prevent a paradigm from guiding research.”







답:   

 

 

24. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Mending and restoring objects often require even more creativity than original production. The preindustrial blacksmith made things to order for people in his immediate community; customizing the product, modifying or transforming it according to the user, was routine. Customers would bring things back if something went wrong; repair was thus an extension of fabrication. With industrialization and eventually with mass production, making things became the province of machine tenders with limited knowledge. But repair continued to require a larger grasp of design and materials, an understanding of the whole and a comprehension of the designer’s intentions. “Manufacturers all work by machinery or by vast subdivision of labour and not, so to speak, by hand,” an 1896 Manual of Mending and Repairing explained. “But all repairing must be done by hand. We can make every detail of a watch or of a gun by machinery, but the machine cannot mend it when broken, much less a clock or a pistol!”







답:   

 

 

25. 다음 도표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The above graphs show the percentage share of the global middle class by region in 2015 and its projected share in 2025. ① It is projected that the share of the global middle class in Asia Pacific will increase from 46 percent in 2015 to 60 percent in 2025. ② The projected share of Asia Pacific in 2025, the largest among the six regions, is more than three times that of Europe in the same year. ③ The shares of Europe and North America are both projected to decrease, from 24 percent in 2015 to 16 percent in 2025 for Europe, and from 11 percent in 2015 to 8 percent in 2025 for North America. ④ Central and South America is not expected to change from 2015 to 2025 in its share of the global middle class. ⑤ In 2025, the share of the Middle East and North Africa will be larger than that of sub-Saharan Africa, as it was in 2015.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

26. Donato Bramante에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

Donato Bramante, born in Fermignano, Italy, began to paint early in his life. His father encouraged him to study painting. Later, he worked as an assistant of Piero della Francesca in Urbino. Around 1480, he built several churches in a new style in Milan. He had a close relationship with Leonardo da Vinci, and they worked together in that city. Architecture became his main interest, but he did not give up painting. Bramante moved to Rome in 1499 and participated in Pope Julius II’s plan for the renewal of Rome. He planned the new Basilica of St. Peter in Rome ― one of the most ambitious building projects in the history of humankind. Bramante died on April 11, 1514 and was buried in Rome. His buildings influenced other architects for centuries.







답:   

 

 

27. Cornhill No Paper Cup Challenge에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?







답:   

 

 

28. Goldbeach SeaWorld Sleepovers에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은?







답:   

 

 

29. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은?

Like whole individuals, cells have a life span. During their life cycle (cell cycle), cell size, shape, and metabolic activities can change dramatically. A cell is “born” as a twin when its mother cell divides, ① producing two daughter cells. Each daughter cell is smaller than the mother cell, and except for unusual cases, each grows until it becomes as large as the mother cell ② was. During this time, the cell absorbs water, sugars, amino acids, and other nutrients and assembles them into new, living protoplasm. After the cell has grown to the proper size, its metabolism shifts as it either prepares to divide or matures and ③ differentiates into a specialized cell. Both growth and development require a complex and dynamic set of interactions involving all cell parts. ④ What cell metabolism and structure should be complex would not be surprising, but actually, they are rather simple and logical. Even the most complex cell has only a small number of parts, each ⑤ responsible for a distinct, well-defined aspect of cell life.

* metabolic: 물질대사의 ** protoplasm: 원형질

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

30. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은?

It has been suggested that “organic” methods, defined as those in which only natural products can be used as inputs, would be less damaging to the biosphere. Large-scale adoption of “organic” farming methods, however, would ① reduce yields and increase production costs for many major crops. Inorganic nitrogen supplies are ② essential for maintaining moderate to high levels of productivity for many of the non-leguminous crop species, because organic supplies of nitrogenous materials often are either limited or more expensive than inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. In addition, there are ③ benefits to the extensive use of either manure or legumes as “green manure” crops. In many cases, weed control can be very difficult or require much hand labor if chemicals cannot be used, and ④ fewer people are willing to do this work as societies become wealthier. Some methods used in “organic” farming, however, such as the sensible use of crop rotations and specific combinations of cropping and livestock enterprises, can make important ⑤ contributions to the sustainability of rural ecosystems.

* nitrogen fertilizer: 질소 비료 ** manure: 거름 *** legume: 콩과(科) 식물

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답:   

 

 

31. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Humour involves not just practical disengagement but cognitive disengagement. As long as something is funny, we are for the moment not concerned with whether it is real or fictional, true or false. This is why we give considerable leeway to people telling funny stories. If they are getting extra laughs by exaggerating the silliness of a situation or even by making up a few details, we are happy to grant them comic licence, a kind of poetic licence. Indeed, someone listening to a funny story who tries to correct the teller ― ‘No, he didn’t spill the spaghetti on the keyboard and the monitor, just on the keyboard’ ― will probably be told by the other listeners to stop interrupting. The creator of humour is putting ideas into people’s heads for the pleasure those ideas will bring, not to provide __________ information.

* cognitive: 인식의 ** leeway: 여지







답:   

 

 

32. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

News, especially in its televised form, is constituted not only by its choice of topics and stories but by its ____________________. Presentational styles have been subject to a tension between an informational-educational purpose and the need to engage us entertainingly. While current affairs programmes are often ‘serious’ in tone sticking to the ‘rules’ of balance, more popular programmes adopt a friendly, lighter, idiom in which we are invited to consider the impact of particular news items from the perspective of the ‘average person in the street’. Indeed, contemporary news construction has come to rely on an increased use of faster editing tempos and ‘flashier’ presentational styles including the use of logos, sound-bites, rapid visual cuts and the ‘star quality’ of news readers. Popular formats can be said to enhance understanding by engaging an audience unwilling to endure the longer verbal orientation of older news formats. However, they arguably work to reduce understanding by failing to provide the structural contexts for news events.







답:   

 

 

33. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Elinor Ostrom found that there are several factors critical to bringing about stable institutional solutions to the problem of the commons. She pointed out, for instance, that the actors affected by the rules for the use and care of resources must have the right to ____________________. For that reason, the people who monitor and control the behavior of users should also be users and/or have been given a mandate by all users. This is a significant insight, as it shows that prospects are poor for a centrally directed solution to the problem of the commons coming from a state power in comparison with a local solution for which users assume personal responsibility. Ostrom also emphasizes the importance of democratic decision processes and that all users must be given access to local forums for solving problems and conflicts among themselves. Political institutions at central, regional, and local levels must allow users to devise their own regulations and independently ensure observance.

* commons: 공유지 ** mandate: 위임







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34. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Precision and determinacy are a necessary requirement for all meaningful scientific debate, and progress in the sciences is, to a large extent, the ongoing process of achieving ever greater precision. But historical representation puts a premium on a proliferation of representations, hence not on the refinement of one representation but on the production of an ever more varied set of representations. Historical insight is not a matter of a continuous “narrowing down” of previous options, not of an approximation of the truth, but, on the contrary, is an “explosion” of possible points of view. It therefore aims at the unmasking of previous illusions of determinacy and precision by the production of new and alternative representations, rather than at achieving truth by a careful analysis of what was right and wrong in those previous representations. And from this perspective, the development of historical insight may indeed be regarded by the outsider as a process of creating ever more confusion, a continuous questioning of ____________________, rather than, as in the sciences, an ever greater approximation to the truth.

* proliferation: 증식







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35. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

Since their introduction, information systems have substantially changed the way business is conducted. ① This is particularly true for business in the shape and form of cooperation between firms that involves an integration of value chains across multiple units. ② The resulting networks do not only cover the business units of a single firm but typically also include multiple units from different firms. ③ As a consequence, firms do not only need to consider their internal organization in order to ensure sustainable business performance; they also need to take into account the entire ecosystem of units surrounding them. ④ Many major companies are fundamentally changing their business models by focusing on profitable units and cutting off less profitable ones. ⑤ In order to allow these different units to cooperate successfully, the existence of a common platform is crucial.

1    2    3    4    5

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36. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

According to the market response model, it is increasing prices that drive providers to search for new sources, innovators to substitute, consumers to conserve, and alternatives to emerge.

(A)
Many examples of such “green taxes” exist. Facing landfill costs, labor expenses, and related costs in the provision of garbage disposal, for example, some cities have required households to dispose of all waste in special trash bags, purchased by consumers themselves, and often costing a dollar or more each.

(B)
Taxing certain goods or services, and so increasing prices, should result in either decreased use of these resources or creative innovation of new sources or options. The money raised through the tax can be used directly by the government either to supply services or to search for alternatives.

(C)
The results have been greatly increased recycling and more careful attention by consumers to packaging and waste. By internalizing the costs of trash to consumers, there has been an observed decrease in the flow of garbage from households.







답:   

 

 

37. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

In spite of the likeness between the fictional and real world, the fictional world deviates from the real one in one important respect.

(A)
The author has selected the content according to his own worldview and his own conception of relevance, in an attempt to be neutral and objective or convey a subjective view on the world. Whatever the motives, the author’s subjective conception of the world stands between the reader and the original, untouched world on which the story is based.

(B)
Because of the inner qualities with which the individual is endowed through heritage and environment, the mind functions as a filter; every outside impression that passes through it is filtered and interpreted. However, the world the reader encounters in literature is already processed and filtered by another consciousness.

(C)
The existing world faced by the individual is in principle an infinite chaos of events and details before it is organized by a human mind. This chaos only gets processed and modified when perceived by a human mind.

* deviate: 벗어나다 ** endow: 부여하다 *** heritage: 유산







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38. 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

Retraining current employees for new positions within the company will also greatly reduce their fear of being laid off.

Introduction of robots into factories, while employment of human workers is being reduced, creates worry and fear. ( ① ) It is the responsibility of management to prevent or, at least, to ease these fears. ( ② ) For example, robots could be introduced only in new plants rather than replacing humans in existing assembly lines. ( ③ ) Workers should be included in the planning for new factories or the introduction of robots into existing plants, so they can participate in the process. ( ④ ) It may be that robots are needed to reduce manufacturing costs so that the company remains competitive, but planning for such cost reductions should be done jointly by labor and management. ( ⑤ ) Since robots are particularly good at highly repetitive simple motions, the replaced human workers should be moved to positions where judgment and decisions beyond the abilities of robots are required.

1    2    3    4    5

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39. 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

As long as the irrealism of the silent black and white film predominated, one could not take filmic fantasies for representations of reality.

Cinema is valuable not for its ability to make visible the hidden outlines of our reality, but for its ability to reveal what reality itself veils ― the dimension of fantasy. ( ① ) This is why, to a person, the first great theorists of film decried the introduction of sound and other technical innovations (such as color) that pushed film in the direction of realism. ( ② ) Since cinema was an entirely fantasmatic art, these innovations were completely unnecessary. ( ③ ) And what’s worse, they could do nothing but turn filmmakers and audiences away from the fantasmatic dimension of cinema, potentially transforming film into a mere delivery device for representations of reality. ( ④ ) But sound and color threatened to create just such an illusion, thereby destroying the very essence of film art. ( ⑤ ) As Rudolf Arnheim puts it, “The creative power of the artist can only come into play where reality and the medium of representation do not coincide.”

* decry: 공공연히 비난하다 ** fantasmatic: 환상의

1    2    3    4    5

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40. 다음 글의 내용을 한 문장으로 요약하고자 한다. 빈칸 (A), (B)에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것은?

Philip Kitcher and Wesley Salmon have suggested that there are two possible alternatives among philosophical theories of explanation. One is the view that scientific explanation consists in the unification of broad bodies of phenomena under a minimal number of generalizations. According to this view, the (or perhaps, a) goal of science is to construct an economical framework of laws or generalizations that are capable of subsuming all observable phenomena. Scientific explanations organize and systematize our knowledge of the empirical world; the more economical the systematization, the deeper our understanding of what is explained. The other view is the causal/mechanical approach. According to it, a scientific explanation of a phenomenon consists of uncovering the mechanisms that produced the phenomenon of interest. This view sees the explanation of individual events as primary, with the explanation of generalizations flowing from them. That is, the explanation of scientific generalizations comes from the causal mechanisms that produce the regularities.

* subsume: 포섭(포함)하다 ** empirical: 경험적인

Scientific explanations can be made either by seeking the (A) __________ number of principles covering all observations or by finding general (B) __________ drawn from individual phenomena.







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41. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Classifying things together into groups is something we do all the time, and it isn’t hard to see why. Imagine trying to shop in a supermarket where the food was arranged in random order on the shelves: tomato soup next to the white bread in one aisle, chicken soup in the back next to the 60-watt light bulbs, one brand of cream cheese in front and another in aisle 8 near the cookies. The task of finding what you want would be (a) time-consuming and extremely difficult, if not impossible.

In the case of a supermarket, someone had to (b) design the system of classification. But there is also a ready-made system of classification embodied in our language. The word “dog,” for example, groups together a certain class of animals and distinguishes them from other animals. Such a grouping may seem too (c) abstract to be called a classification, but this is only because you have already mastered the word. As a child learning to speak, you had to work hard to (d) learn the system of classification your parents were trying to teach you. Before you got the hang of it, you probably made mistakes, like calling the cat a dog. If you hadn’t learned to speak, the whole world would seem like the (e) unorganized supermarket; you would be in the position of an infant, for whom every object is new and unfamiliar. In learning the principles of classification, therefore, we’ll be learning about the structure that lies at the core of our language.







답:   

 

 

42. 밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은?

Classifying things together into groups is something we do all the time, and it isn’t hard to see why. Imagine trying to shop in a supermarket where the food was arranged in random order on the shelves: tomato soup next to the white bread in one aisle, chicken soup in the back next to the 60-watt light bulbs, one brand of cream cheese in front and another in aisle 8 near the cookies. The task of finding what you want would be (a) time-consuming and extremely difficult, if not impossible.

In the case of a supermarket, someone had to (b) design the system of classification. But there is also a ready-made system of classification embodied in our language. The word “dog,” for example, groups together a certain class of animals and distinguishes them from other animals. Such a grouping may seem too (c) abstract to be called a classification, but this is only because you have already mastered the word. As a child learning to speak, you had to work hard to (d) learn the system of classification your parents were trying to teach you. Before you got the hang of it, you probably made mistakes, like calling the cat a dog. If you hadn’t learned to speak, the whole world would seem like the (e) unorganized supermarket; you would be in the position of an infant, for whom every object is new and unfamiliar. In learning the principles of classification, therefore, we’ll be learning about the structure that lies at the core of our language.







답:   

 

 

43. 주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은?

(A)

In the gym, members of the taekwondo club were busy practicing. Some were trying to kick as high as they could, and some were striking the sparring pad. Anna, the head of the club, was teaching the new members basic moves. Close by, her friend Jane was assisting Anna. Jane noticed that Anna was glancing at the entrance door of the gym. She seemed to be expecting someone. At last, when Anna took a break, Jane came over to (a) her and asked, “Hey, are you waiting for Cora?”

(B)
Cora walked in like a wounded soldier with bandages on her face and arms. Surprised, Anna and Jane simply looked at her with their eyes wide open. Cora explained, “I’m sorry I’ve been absent. I got into a bicycle accident, and I was in the hospital for two days. Finally, the doctor gave me the okay to practice.” Anna said excitedly, “No problem! We’re thrilled to have you back!” Then, Jane gave Anna an apologetic look, and (b) she responded with a friendly pat on Jane’s shoulder.

(C)
Anna answered the question by nodding uneasily. In fact, Jane knew what her friend was thinking. Cora was a new member, whom Anna had personally invited to join the club. Anna really liked (c) her. Although her budget was tight, Anna bought Cora a taekwondo uniform. When she received it, Cora thanked her and promised, “I’ll come to practice and work hard every day.” However, unexpectedly, she came to practice only once and then never showed up again.

(D)
Since Cora had missed several practices, Anna wondered what could have happened. Jane, on the other hand, was disappointed and said judgingly, “Still waiting for her, huh? I can’t believe (d) you don’t feel disappointed or angry. Why don’t you forget about her?” Anna replied, “Well, I know most newcomers don’t keep their commitment to the club, but I thought that Cora would be different. She said she would come every day and practice.” Just as Jane was about to respond to (e) her, the door swung open. There she was!







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44. 밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?

(A)

In the gym, members of the taekwondo club were busy practicing. Some were trying to kick as high as they could, and some were striking the sparring pad. Anna, the head of the club, was teaching the new members basic moves. Close by, her friend Jane was assisting Anna. Jane noticed that Anna was glancing at the entrance door of the gym. She seemed to be expecting someone. At last, when Anna took a break, Jane came over to (a) her and asked, “Hey, are you waiting for Cora?”

(B)
Cora walked in like a wounded soldier with bandages on her face and arms. Surprised, Anna and Jane simply looked at her with their eyes wide open. Cora explained, “I’m sorry I’ve been absent. I got into a bicycle accident, and I was in the hospital for two days. Finally, the doctor gave me the okay to practice.” Anna said excitedly, “No problem! We’re thrilled to have you back!” Then, Jane gave Anna an apologetic look, and (b) she responded with a friendly pat on Jane’s shoulder.

(C)
Anna answered the question by nodding uneasily. In fact, Jane knew what her friend was thinking. Cora was a new member, whom Anna had personally invited to join the club. Anna really liked (c) her. Although her budget was tight, Anna bought Cora a taekwondo uniform. When she received it, Cora thanked her and promised, “I’ll come to practice and work hard every day.” However, unexpectedly, she came to practice only once and then never showed up again.

(D)
Since Cora had missed several practices, Anna wondered what could have happened. Jane, on the other hand, was disappointed and said judgingly, “Still waiting for her, huh? I can’t believe (d) you don’t feel disappointed or angry. Why don’t you forget about her?” Anna replied, “Well, I know most newcomers don’t keep their commitment to the club, but I thought that Cora would be different. She said she would come every day and practice.” Just as Jane was about to respond to (e) her, the door swung open. There she was!







답:   

 

 

45. 글에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은?

(A)

In the gym, members of the taekwondo club were busy practicing. Some were trying to kick as high as they could, and some were striking the sparring pad. Anna, the head of the club, was teaching the new members basic moves. Close by, her friend Jane was assisting Anna. Jane noticed that Anna was glancing at the entrance door of the gym. She seemed to be expecting someone. At last, when Anna took a break, Jane came over to (a) her and asked, “Hey, are you waiting for Cora?”

(B)
Cora walked in like a wounded soldier with bandages on her face and arms. Surprised, Anna and Jane simply looked at her with their eyes wide open. Cora explained, “I’m sorry I’ve been absent. I got into a bicycle accident, and I was in the hospital for two days. Finally, the doctor gave me the okay to practice.” Anna said excitedly, “No problem! We’re thrilled to have you back!” Then, Jane gave Anna an apologetic look, and (b) she responded with a friendly pat on Jane’s shoulder.

(C)
Anna answered the question by nodding uneasily. In fact, Jane knew what her friend was thinking. Cora was a new member, whom Anna had personally invited to join the club. Anna really liked (c) her. Although her budget was tight, Anna bought Cora a taekwondo uniform. When she received it, Cora thanked her and promised, “I’ll come to practice and work hard every day.” However, unexpectedly, she came to practice only once and then never showed up again.

(D)
Since Cora had missed several practices, Anna wondered what could have happened. Jane, on the other hand, was disappointed and said judgingly, “Still waiting for her, huh? I can’t believe (d) you don’t feel disappointed or angry. Why don’t you forget about her?” Anna replied, “Well, I know most newcomers don’t keep their commitment to the club, but I thought that Cora would be different. She said she would come every day and practice.” Just as Jane was about to respond to (e) her, the door swung open. There she was!







답:   

 

 


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