통찰력 있는 피이쉐어, 한국 No.1
M Quiz 단어 문법 수능 작문 동화 소설

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2023학년도 수능 영어


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1. 다음을 듣고, 남자가 하는 말의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Hello, Lockwood High School students. This is your school librarian, Mr. Wilkins. I’m sure you’re aware that our school library is hosting a bookmark design competition. I encourage students of all grades to participate in the competition. The winning designs will be made into bookmarks, which will be distributed to library visitors. We’re also giving out a variety of other prizes. So don’t let this great opportunity slip away. Since the registration period for the bookmark design competition ends this Friday, make sure you visit our school library to submit your application. Come and participate to display your creativity and talents.

 

 

2. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 의견으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Honey, do you want some apples with breakfast?
W: Sounds great. Can you save the apple peels for me?
M: Why? What do you want them for?
W: I’m going to use them to make a face pack. Apple peels are effective for improving skin condition.
M: Where did you hear about that?
W: I recently read an article about their benefits for our skin.
M: Interesting. What’s in them?
W: It said apple peels are rich in vitamins and minerals, so they moisturize our skin and enhance skin glow.
M: That’s good to know.
W: Also, they remove oil from our skin and have a cooling effect.
M: Wow! Then I shouldn’t throw them away.
W: Right. Apple peels can help improve our skin condition.
M: I see. I’ll save them for you.

 

 

3. 대화를 듣고, 두 사람의 관계를 가장 잘 나타낸 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Hello, Mr. Roberts. I appreciate you taking the time to share your experience and knowledge.
M: My pleasure, Ms. Lee. I’ve enjoyed all your bestselling books. So, I’m excited to help you.
W: Thanks. Since I’m writing about world-class athletes, I wanted to hear how you’ve trained children who became Olympic swimming champions.
M: Then we should start with what I observe on the first day of my swimming classes.
W: Do some children stand out right away?
M: Yes. Some kids are able to pick up my instructions quickly and easily.
W: I see. So did many of those kids go on to become Olympic champions?
M: Well, practicing is much more important. Those who consistently practiced made great improvements and ultimately became champions.
W: This is good insight I can use in my book.
M: I hope it helps.

 

 

4. 대화를 듣고, 그림에서 대화의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   
M: Hi, Jane. What are you looking at on your phone?
W: Hi, Brian. It’s a picture I took at Grand Boulder National Park. I went hiking there last weekend.
M: Let me see. I like the bear statue wearing the check pattern jacket.
W: It’s cute, right?
M: Yeah. There’s a park map between the lights. It seems to include useful information.
W: It helps me pick a different trail each time I go hiking. Do you see the two flowerpots in front of the cabin?
M: Yes. They look beautiful. Oh, there’s a round table by the path.
W: I had lunch there.
M: What a nice place to enjoy lunch! Look at the bird on the tree branch.
W: Isn’t it lovely? I love going there and being close to nature.

 

 

5. 대화를 듣고, 남자가 할 일로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Honey, I’m so excited for our restaurant’s reopening event tomorrow.
M: So am I. Let’s see. We’ve ordered enough ingredients, right?
W: I think so. We need to remind our loyal customers of the event.
M: I already sent text messages.
W: Good. I hope people like the new menu items that we added.
M: Don’t worry. We have a great chef. So I’m sure the new dishes will be a hit.
W: What about the live music? Did you confirm the song list with the band?
M: Not yet. And we also need to wrap wine glasses to give as gifts for the customers.
W: Okay. Could you wrap them?
M: Sure. I’ll do it now.
W: Great! Then I’ll contact the band.

 

 

6. 대화를 듣고, 여자가 지불할 금액을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Hello, are you enjoying your time here at Magic Unicorn Children’s Farm?
W: Yes, thank you. I’d like to buy some snacks to feed the animals.
M: Sure. We sell two kinds of food for the animals, vegetable sticks and sliced fruits.
W: How much do they cost?
M: It’s $5 for a pack of vegetable sticks and $10 for a pack of sliced fruits.
W: I’ll take four packs of vegetable sticks. Are there any other activities?
M: We offer horseback riding. A ticket for a ride around the farm is $25.
W: Oh, my son and daughter will love it. Two tickets, please.
M: So, four packs of vegetable sticks and two horseback riding tickets, correct?
W: Right. And I heard you’re offering a 10% discount as an autumn promotional event.
M: I’m sorry. That event ended last week.
W: I see. Here’s my credit card.

 

 

7. 대화를 듣고, 남자가 K-Trend Festival에 갈 수 없는 이유를 고르시오.







답:   
W: Sam, do you want to go to the K-Trend Festival with me this Saturday?
M: Hi, Olivia. Is that the festival held at Central Square?
W: Yeah, that’s it. There’ll be many attractions including Taekwondo performances that incorporate K-pop dance moves.
M: Really? Sounds cool! What time does it start?
W: It starts at 5 p.m. Will you be working at the movie theater at that time?
M: No, I’m not working this Saturday. But I can’t come to the festival.
W: Too bad. Do you have to study for your economics exam?
M: Actually, I already took the exam yesterday.
W: Then, what’s the matter?
M: I have to take my younger sister to the airport on Saturday evening.
W: Where’s she going?
M: She’s going to Canada to study abroad.
W: That’s awesome. I hope she has a good experience there.

 

 

8. 대화를 듣고, 졸업 사진 촬영에 관해 언급되지 않은 것을 고르시오.







답:   
[Telephone rings.]
W: Hello, Jennifer Porter speaking.
M: Hi, Ms. Porter. This is Steve Jackson from Lifetime Photo Studio.
W: Oh, how are you?
M: Good. I’m scheduled to shoot your school’s graduation photos on Wednesday, November 23rd. So, I’m calling to confirm the details.
W: Sure. As we previously discussed, the place will be Lily Pond Park.
M: Okay. Could you tell me the exact number of students taking part in the photo session?
W: Let me check. [Pause] Well, it’ll be 180 students.
M: I see. The same as you said before.
W: That’s right. How long will it take to shoot the photos?
M: It’ll take almost three hours. We should finish by noon.
W: Great. Is there any other information you need?
M: No, I’m all set. Bye.

 

 

9. Greenville Houseplant Expo에 관한 다음 내용을 듣고, 일치하지 않는 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Hello, listeners. I’m Melinda Jones from the organizing committee of the Greenville Houseplant Expo. I’m here to announce that the expo will run for three days starting on March 17th, 2023. Just on the opening day, there’ll be a lecture on plant care methods. This lecture will be given by Dr. Evans, host of the TV show Plants Love You. Most importantly, you can buy a variety of plants, including rare species, exhibited in the expo. Due to its popularity, you’d better get your tickets early. Tickets are available through online purchase only. If you’re a plant lover, come to the expo, which will take place at the Emerald Convention Center, and refresh your houseplant collection.

 

 

10. 다음 표를 보면서 대화를 듣고, 여자가 구매할 첼로 케이스를 고르시오.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   
M: Welcome to Uptown Music Shop. How can I help you?
W: Hi, I’m looking for a hard cello case.
M: All right. Here’s our catalog. These are the ones we have in stock. How much are you willing to spend?
W: I can spend up to $200.
M: Okay. How about the interior material? Do you have a preference?
W: Well, I don’t want the velvet one. It seems difficult to take care of.
M: Right. Then how about the length?
W: I have a full-size cello, so I want a case that’s at least 50 inches long.
M: Now you have two options left. Do you need wheels on your case?
W: No, I don’t need them. I won’t carry it around a lot.
M: Then this is the one for you.
W: Thank you. I’ll take it.

 

 

11. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 마지막 말에 대한 여자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
M: Mom, I’d like to get a new bicycle helmet. Can you buy me one?
W: I’ll buy you a new helmet if you need it. But what’s the problem with the one you have now?
M: My helmet feels too tight. It hurts my head.
W: __________

 

 

12. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 마지막 말에 대한 남자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.







답:   
W: Honey, are you free on Saturday afternoon? Our son said he’s going to a career fair and asked if we can come along.
M: Great, I’m free. I’ve been wondering what kinds of emerging careers might suit him.
W: Me, too. Then why don’t we join him?
M: __________

 

 

13. 대화를 듣고, 남자의 마지막 말에 대한 여자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Woman:







답:   
M: Can I come in, Professor Rossini?
W: Of course. Come on in, Ben. What brings you here?
M: I came to ask for advice on studying Italian.
W: Is there anything specific you’re having trouble with?
M: Yes. I’m experiencing difficulty using words properly. Could I get some tips?
W: Sure. First, let me ask how you use your dictionary.
M: Well, I use it to look up words that I don’t know the meanings of.
W: Dictionaries provide example sentences for most words. Do you read them, too?
M: No, I don’t pay attention to the example sentences.
W: Knowing the meaning of words is important, but you should also understand the context in which the words are properly used.
M: I see. So you’re suggesting that I study the example sentences as well, right?
W:

 

 

14. 대화를 듣고, 여자의 마지막 말에 대한 남자의 응답으로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Man:







답:   
W: Dad, I found these old photos of our camping trip from 25 years ago.
M: Oh, I remember this trip. You were about the same age as your son, Peter.
W: Right. It was a really fun trip.
M: Yeah. I still go camping often, but that’s the most memorable one.
W: I agree. I want Peter to have that experience, too. But he always refuses to go.
M: Why doesn’t he want to go camping?
W: He just wants to stay home and spend all his time on his smartphone.
M: Don’t worry. I’m sure Peter will like camping once he experiences how fun it is.
W: You’re probably right. Dad, when is the next time you’re going camping?
M: This weekend. We should all go together.
W: That’d be great. Peter might come as well if his favorite grandpa invites him.
M:

 

 

15. 다음 상황 설명을 듣고, Katie가 Jacob에게 할 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

Katie:







답:   
M: Jacob just started volunteering at a nursing home and is planning his next visit. He recalls that not every resident in the nursing home enjoyed the activity he had prepared last time. To avoid this situation, he tries to find an activity that all residents in the nursing home can enjoy. But he can’t come up with one that everyone would like. He asks his friend Katie for advice because she has lots of experience volunteering at a nursing home. Katie thinks there’s no single activity that can interest all the residents. So Katie wants to suggest to Jacob that next time he should plan more than one activity. In this situation, what would Katie most likely say to Jacob?

 

 

16. 여자가 하는 말의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?







답:   
W: Hello, students. Perhaps no material on earth has been more important in human history than metal. Today, we’re going to discuss the contribution of metals to the development of civilization. First, gold was considered the most valuable metal due to its beauty and scarcity. Because of its visual appeal and ability to be easily shaped, it’s been used to decorate religious places and objects. Second, silver was mainly prized for being the shiniest of all metals. It’s been one of the main forms of currency since it was the chief metal used for making coins. Next, iron became widely used once humans discovered techniques to strengthen it. This metal was fashioned into tools that revolutionized farming, and later, machines that industrialized the world. Finally, aluminum is the most abundant metal in the world and is also lightweight. That’s why it’s been essential to countless industries in modern society from automotive to aerospace to household products. Now, let’s watch a short related video.

 

 

17. 언급된 금속이 아닌 것은?







답:   
W: Hello, students. Perhaps no material on earth has been more important in human history than metal. Today, we’re going to discuss the contribution of metals to the development of civilization. First, gold was considered the most valuable metal due to its beauty and scarcity. Because of its visual appeal and ability to be easily shaped, it’s been used to decorate religious places and objects. Second, silver was mainly prized for being the shiniest of all metals. It’s been one of the main forms of currency since it was the chief metal used for making coins. Next, iron became widely used once humans discovered techniques to strengthen it. This metal was fashioned into tools that revolutionized farming, and later, machines that industrialized the world. Finally, aluminum is the most abundant metal in the world and is also lightweight. That’s why it’s been essential to countless industries in modern society from automotive to aerospace to household products. Now, let’s watch a short related video.

 

 

18. 다음 글의 목적으로 가장 적절한 것은?

To whom it may concern,

My name is Michael Brown. I have been a bird-watcher since childhood. I have always enjoyed watching birds in my yard and identifying them by sight and sound. Yesterday, I happened to read an article about your club. I was surprised and excited to find out about a community of passionate bird-watchers who travel annually to go birding. I would love to join your club, but your website appears to be under construction. I could not find any information except for this contact email address. I would like to know how to sign up for the club. I look forward to your reply.

Sincerely,

Michael Brown







답:   

 

 

19. 다음 글에 드러난 Jamie의 심경 변화로 가장 적절한 것은?

Putting all of her energy into her last steps of the running race, Jamie crossed the finish line. To her disappointment, she had failed to beat her personal best time, again. Jamie had pushed herself for months to finally break her record, but it was all for nothing. Recognizing how she felt about her failure, Ken, her teammate, approached her and said, “Jamie, even though you didn’t set a personal best time today, your performances have improved dramatically. Your running skills have progressed so much! You’ll definitely break your personal best time in the next race!” After hearing his comments, she felt confident about herself. Jamie, now motivated to keep pushing for her goal, replied with a smile. “You’re right! Next race, I’ll beat my best time for sure!”







답:   

 

 

20. 다음 글에서 필자가 주장하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

At every step in our journey through life we encounter junctions with many different pathways leading into the distance. Each choice involves uncertainty about which path will get you to your destination. Trusting our intuition to make the choice often ends up with us making a suboptimal choice. Turning the uncertainty into numbers has proved a potent way of analyzing the paths and finding the shortcut to your destination. The mathematical theory of probability hasn’t eliminated risk, but it allows us to manage that risk more effectively. The strategy is to analyze all the possible scenarios that the future holds and then to see what proportion of them lead to success or failure. This gives you a much better map of the future on which to base your decisions about which path to choose.

* junction: 분기점 ** suboptimal: 차선의







답:   

 

 

21. 밑줄 친 make oneself public to oneself 가 다음 글에서 의미 하는 바로 가장 적절한 것은?

Coming of age in the 18th and 19th centuries, the personal diary became a centerpiece in the construction of a modern subjectivity, at the heart of which is the application of reason and critique to the understanding of world and self, which allowed the creation of a new kind of knowledge. Diaries were central media through which enlightened and free subjects could be constructed. They provided a space where one could write daily about her whereabouts, feelings, and thoughts. Over time and with rereading, disparate entries, events, and happenstances could be rendered into insights and narratives about the self, and allowed for the formation of subjectivity. It is in that context that the idea of “the self [as] both made and explored with words” emerges. Diaries were personal and private; one would write for oneself, or, in Habermas’s formulation, one would make oneself public to oneself. By making the self public in a private sphere, the self also became an object for self-inspection and self-critique.

* disparate: 이질적인 ** render: 만들다







답:   

 

 

22. 다음 글의 요지로 가장 적절한 것은?

Urban delivery vehicles can be adapted to better suit the density of urban distribution, which often involves smaller vehicles such as vans, including bicycles. The latter have the potential to become a preferred ‘last-mile’ vehicle, particularly in high-density and congested areas. In locations where bicycle use is high, such as the Netherlands, delivery bicycles are also used to carry personal cargo (e.g. groceries). Due to their low acquisition and maintenance costs, cargo bicycles convey much potential in developed and developing countries alike, such as the becak (a three-wheeled bicycle) in Indonesia. Services using electrically assisted delivery tricycles have been successfully implemented in France and are gradually being adopted across Europe for services as varied as parcel and catering deliveries. Using bicycles as cargo vehicles is particularly encouraged when combined with policies that restrict motor vehicle access to specific areas of a city, such as downtown or commercial districts, or with the extension of dedicated bike lanes.







답:   

 

 

23. 다음 글의 주제로 가장 적절한 것은?

An important advantage of disclosure, as opposed to more aggressive forms of regulation, is its flexibility and respect for the operation of free markets. Regulatory mandates are blunt swords; they tend to neglect diversity and may have serious unintended adverse effects. For example, energy efficiency requirements for appliances may produce goods that work less well or that have characteristics that consumers do not want. Information provision, by contrast, respects freedom of choice. If automobile manufacturers are required to measure and publicize the safety characteristics of cars, potential car purchasers can trade safety concerns against other attributes, such as price and styling. If restaurant customers are informed of the calories in their meals, those who want to lose weight can make use of the information, leaving those who are unconcerned about calories unaffected. Disclosure does not interfere with, and should even promote, the autonomy (and quality) of individual decision-making.

* mandate: 명령 ** adverse: 거스르는 *** autonomy: 자율성







답:   

 

 

24. 다음 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

Different parts of the brain’s visual system get information on a need-to-know basis. Cells that help your hand muscles reach out to an object need to know the size and location of the object, but they don’t need to know about color. They need to know a little about shape, but not in great detail. Cells that help you recognize people’s faces need to be extremely sensitive to details of shape, but they can pay less attention to location. It is natural to assume that anyone who sees an object sees everything about it ― the shape, color, location, and movement. However, one part of your brain sees its shape, another sees color, another detects location, and another perceives movement. Consequently, after localized brain damage, it is possible to see certain aspects of an object and not others. Centuries ago, people found it difficult to imagine how someone could see an object without seeing what color it is. Even today, you might find it surprising to learn about people who see an object without seeing where it is, or see it without seeing whether it is moving.







답:   

 

 

25. 다음 도표의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

The above graph shows the percentages of Americans’ preferred type of place to live by age group, based on a 2020 survey. ① In each of the three age groups, Town/Rural Area was the most preferred type of place to live. ② In the 18-34 year-olds group, the percentage of those who preferred Big/Small City was higher than that of those who preferred Suburb of Big/Small City. ③ In the 35-54 year-olds group, the percentage of those who preferred Suburb of Big/Small City exceeded that of those who preferred Big/Small City. ④ In the 55 year-olds and older group, the percentage of those who chose Big/Small City among the three preferred types of place to live was the lowest. ⑤ Each percentage of the three preferred types of place to live was higher than 20% across the three age groups.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

26. Niklas Luhmann에 관한 다음 글의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?

Niklas Luhmann, a renowned sociologist of the twentieth century, was born in Lüneburg, Germany in 1927. After World War II, he studied law at the University of Freiburg until 1949. Early in his career, he worked for the State of Lower Saxony, where he was in charge of educational reform. In 1960—1961, Luhmann had the chance to study sociology at Harvard University, where he was influenced by Talcott Parsons, one of the most famous social system theorists. Later, Luhmann developed his own social system theory. In 1968, he became a professor of sociology at the University of Bielefeld. He researched a variety of subjects, including mass media and law. Although his books are known to be difficult to translate, they have in fact been widely translated into other languages.







답:   

 

 

27. 다음 Renovation Notice의 내용과 일치하지 않는 것은?







답:   

 

 

28. 2022 Valestown Recycles Poster Contest에 관한 다음 안내문의 내용과 일치하는 것은?







답:   

 

 

29. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 어법상 틀린 것은?

Trends constantly suggest new opportunities for individuals to restage themselves, representing occasions for change. To understand how trends can ultimately give individuals power and freedom, one must first discuss fashion’s importance as a basis for change. The most common explanation offered by my informants as to why fashion is so appealing is ① that it constitutes a kind of theatrical costumery. Clothes are part of how people present ② them to the world, and fashion locates them in the present, relative to what is happening in society and to fashion’s own history. As a form of expression, fashion contains a host of ambiguities, enabling individuals to recreate the meanings ③ associated with specific pieces of clothing. Fashion is among the simplest and cheapest methods of self-expression: clothes can be ④ inexpensively purchased while making it easy to convey notions of wealth, intellectual stature, relaxation or environmental consciousness, even if none of these is true. Fashion can also strengthen agency in various ways, ⑤ opening up space for action.

* stature: 능력

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

30. 다음 글의 밑줄 친 부분 중, 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은?

Everywhere we turn we hear about almighty “cyberspace”! The hype promises that we will leave our boring lives, put on goggles and body suits, and enter some metallic, three-dimensional, multimedia otherworld. When the Industrial Revolution arrived with its great innovation, the motor, we didn’t leave our world to go to some ① remote motorspace! On the contrary, we brought the motors into our lives, as automobiles, refrigerators, drill presses, and pencil sharpeners. This ② absorption has been so complete that we refer to all these tools with names that declare their usage, not their “motorness.” These innovations led to a major socioeconomic movement precisely because they entered and ③ affected profoundly our everyday lives. People have not changed fundamentally in thousands of years. Technology changes constantly. It’s the one that must ④ adapt to us. That’s exactly what will happen with information technology and its devices under human-centric computing. The longer we continue to believe that computers will take us to a magical new world, the longer we will ⑤ maintain their natural fusion with our lives, the hallmark of every major movement that aspires to be called a socioeconomic revolution.

* hype: 과대광고 ** hallmark: 특징

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

31. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

There is something deeply paradoxical about the professional status of sports journalism, especially in the medium of print. In discharging their usual responsibilities of description and commentary, reporters’ accounts of sports events are eagerly consulted by sports fans, while in their broader journalistic role of covering sport in its many forms, sports journalists are among the most visible of all contemporary writers. The ruminations of the elite class of ‘celebrity’ sports journalists are much sought after by the major newspapers, their lucrative contracts being the envy of colleagues in other ‘disciplines’ of journalism. Yet sports journalists do not have a standing in their profession that corresponds to the size of their readerships or of their pay packets, with the old saying (now reaching the status of cliché) that sport is the ‘toy department of the news media’ still readily to hand as a dismissal of the worth of what sports journalists do. This reluctance to take sports journalism seriously produces the paradoxical outcome that sports newspaper writers are much read but little __________.

* discharge: 이행하다 ** rumination: 생각 *** lucrative: 돈을 많이 버는







답:   

 

 

32. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

People have always wanted to be around other people and to learn from them. Cities have long been dynamos of social possibility, foundries of art, music, and fashion. Slang, or, if you prefer, “lexical innovation,” has always started in cities ― an outgrowth of all those different people so frequently exposed to one another. It spreads outward, in a manner not unlike transmissible disease, which itself typically “takes off” in cities. If, as the noted linguist Leonard Bloomfield argued, the way a person talks is a “composite result of what he has heard before,” then language innovation would happen where the most people heard and talked to the most other people. Cities drive taste change because they ____________________, who not surprisingly are often the creative people cities seem to attract. Media, ever more global, ever more far-reaching, spread language faster to more people.

* foundry: 주물 공장 ** lexical: 어휘의







답:   

 

 

33. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

The entrance to a honeybee colony, often referred to as the dancefloor, is a market place for information about the state of the colony and the environment outside the hive. Studying interactions on the dancefloor provides us with a number of illustrative examples of how individuals changing their own behavior in response to local information ____________________. For example, upon returning to their hive honeybees that have collected water search out a receiver bee to unload their water to within the hive. If this search time is short then the returning bee is more likely to perform a waggle dance to recruit others to the water source. Conversely, if this search time is long then the bee is more likely to give up collecting water. Since receiver bees will only accept water if they require it, either for themselves or to pass on to other bees and brood, this unloading time is correlated with the colony’s overall need of water. Thus the individual water forager’s response to unloading time (up or down) regulates water collection in response to the colony’s need.

* brood: 애벌레 ** forager: 조달자







답:   

 

 

34. 다음 빈칸에 들어갈 말로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

We understand that the segregation of our consciousness into present, past, and future is both a fiction and an oddly self-referential framework; your present was part of your mother’s future, and your children’s past will be in part your present. Nothing is generally wrong with structuring our consciousness of time in this conventional manner, and it often works well enough. In the case of climate change, however, the sharp division of time into past, present, and future has been desperately misleading and has, most importantly, hidden from view the extent of the responsibility of those of us alive now. The narrowing of our consciousness of time smooths the way to divorcing ourselves from responsibility for developments in the past and the future with which our lives are in fact deeply intertwined. In the climate case, it is not that ____________________. It is that the realities are obscured from view by the partitioning of time, and so questions of responsibility toward the past and future do not arise naturally.

* segregation: 분리 ** intertwine: 뒤얽히게 하다 *** obscure: 흐릿하게 하다







답:   

 

 

35. 다음 글에서 전체 흐름과 관계 없는 문장은?

Actors, singers, politicians and countless others recognise the power of the human voice as a means of communication beyond the simple decoding of the words that are used. Learning to control your voice and use it for different purposes is, therefore, one of the most important skills to develop as an early career teacher. ① The more confidently you give instructions, the higher the chance of a positive class response. ② There are times when being able to project your voice loudly will be very useful when working in school, and knowing that you can cut through a noisy classroom, dinner hall or playground is a great skill to have. ③ In order to address serious noise issues in school, students, parents and teachers should search for a solution together. ④ However, I would always advise that you use your loudest voice incredibly sparingly and avoid shouting as much as possible. ⑤ A quiet, authoritative and measured tone has so much more impact than slightly panicked shouting.

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

36. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

A fascinating species of water flea exhibits a kind of flexibility that evolutionary biologists call adaptive plasticity.

(A)
That’s a clever trick, because producing spines and a helmet is costly, in terms of energy, and conserving energy is essential for an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce. The water flea only expends the energy needed to produce spines and a helmet when it needs to.

(B)
If the baby water flea is developing into an adult in water that includes the chemical signatures of creatures that prey on water fleas, it develops a helmet and spines to defend itself against predators. If the water around it doesn’t include the chemical signatures of predators, the water flea doesn’t develop these protective devices.

(C)
So it may well be that this plasticity is an adaptation: a trait that came to exist in a species because it contributed to reproductive fitness. There are many cases, across many species, of adaptive plasticity. Plasticity is conducive to fitness if there is sufficient variation in the environment.

* spine: 가시 돌기 ** conducive: 도움되는







답:   

 

 

37. 주어진 글 다음에 이어질 글의 순서로 가장 적절한 것을 고르시오.

The most commonly known form of results-based pricing is a practice called contingency pricing, used by lawyers.

(A)
Therefore, only an outcome in the client’s favor is compensated. From the client’s point of view, the pricing makes sense in part because most clients in these cases are unfamiliar with and possibly intimidated by law firms. Their biggest fears are high fees for a case that may take years to settle.

(B)
By using contingency pricing, clients are ensured that they pay no fees until they receive a settlement. In these and other instances of contingency pricing, the economic value of the service is hard to determine before the service, and providers develop a price that allows them to share the risks and rewards of delivering value to the buyer.

(C)
Contingency pricing is the major way that personal injury and certain consumer cases are billed. In this approach, lawyers do not receive fees or payment until the case is settled, when they are paid a percentage of the money that the client receives.

* intimidate: 위협하다







답:   

 

 

38. 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

There’s a reason for that: traditionally, park designers attempted to create such a feeling by planting tall trees at park boundaries, building stone walls, and constructing other means of partition.

Parks take the shape demanded by the cultural concerns of their time. Once parks are in place, they are no inert stage ― their purposes and meanings are made and remade by planners and by park users. Moments of park creation are particularly telling, however, for they reveal and actualize ideas about nature and its relationship to urban society. ( ① ) Indeed, what distinguishes a park from the broader category of public space is the representation of nature that parks are meant to embody. ( ② ) Public spaces include parks, concrete plazas, sidewalks, even indoor atriums. ( ③ ) Parks typically have trees, grass, and other plants as their central features. ( ④ ) When entering a city park, people often imagine a sharp separation from streets, cars, and buildings. ( ⑤ ) What’s behind this idea is not only landscape architects’ desire to design aesthetically suggestive park spaces, but a much longer history of Western thought that envisions cities and nature as antithetical spaces and oppositional forces.

* aesthetically: 미적으로 ** antithetical: 대조적인

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

39. 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

It may be easier to reach an agreement when settlement terms don’t have to be implemented until months in the future.

Negotiators should try to find ways to slice a large issue into smaller pieces, known as using salami tactics. ( ① ) Issues that can be expressed in quantitative, measurable units are easy to slice. ( ② ) For example, compensation demands can be divided into cents-per-hour increments or lease rates can be quoted as dollars per square foot. ( ③ ) When working to fractionate issues of principle or precedent, parties may use the time horizon (when the principle goes into effect or how long it will last) as a way to fractionate the issue. ( ④ ) Another approach is to vary the number of ways that the principle may be applied. ( ⑤ ) For example, a company may devise a family emergency leave plan that allows employees the opportunity to be away from the company for a period of no longer than three hours, and no more than once a month, for illness in the employee’s immediate family.

* increment: 증가 ** fractionate: 세분하다

1    2    3    4    5

답:   

 

 

40. 글의 흐름으로 보아, 주어진 문장이 들어가기에 가장 적절한 곳을 고르시오.

“Craftsmanship” may suggest a way of life that declined with the arrival of industrial society ― but this is misleading. Craftsmanship names an enduring, basic human impulse, the desire to do a job well for its own sake. Craftsmanship cuts a far wider swath than skilled manual labor; it serves the computer programmer, the doctor, and the artist; parenting improves when it is practiced as a skilled craft, as does citizenship. In all these domains, craftsmanship focuses on objective standards, on the thing in itself. Social and economic conditions, however, often stand in the way of the craftsman’s discipline and commitment: schools may fail to provide the tools to do good work, and workplaces may not truly value the aspiration for quality. And though craftsmanship can reward an individual with a sense of pride in work, this reward is not simple. The craftsman often faces conflicting objective standards of excellence; the desire to do something well for its own sake can be weakened by competitive pressure, by frustration, or by obsession.

* swath: 구획

Craftsmanship, a human desire that has (A) over time in diverse contexts, often encounters factors that (B) its full development.







답:   

 

 

41. 글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?

There is evidence that even very simple algorithms can outperform expert judgement on simple prediction problems. For example, algorithms have proved more (a) accurate than humans in predicting whether a prisoner released on parole will go on to commit another crime, or in predicting whether a potential candidate will perform well in a job in future. In over 100 studies across many different domains, half of all cases show simple formulas make (b) better significant predictions than human experts, and the remainder (except a very small handful), show a tie between the two. When there are a lot of different factors involved and a situation is very uncertain, simple formulas can win out by focusing on the most important factors and being consistent, while human judgement is too easily influenced by particularly salient and perhaps (c) irrelevant considerations. A similar idea is supported by further evidence that ‘checklists’ can improve the quality of expert decisions in a range of domains by ensuring that important steps or considerations aren’t missed when people are feeling (d) relaxed. For example, treating patients in intensive care can require hundreds of small actions per day, and one small error could cost a life. Using checklists to ensure that no crucial steps are missed has proved to be remarkably (e) effective in a range of medical contexts, from preventing live infections to reducing pneumonia.

* parole: 가석방 ** salient: 두드러진 *** pneumonia: 폐렴







답:   

 

 

42. 밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은?

There is evidence that even very simple algorithms can outperform expert judgement on simple prediction problems. For example, algorithms have proved more (a) accurate than humans in predicting whether a prisoner released on parole will go on to commit another crime, or in predicting whether a potential candidate will perform well in a job in future. In over 100 studies across many different domains, half of all cases show simple formulas make (b) better significant predictions than human experts, and the remainder (except a very small handful), show a tie between the two. When there are a lot of different factors involved and a situation is very uncertain, simple formulas can win out by focusing on the most important factors and being consistent, while human judgement is too easily influenced by particularly salient and perhaps (c) irrelevant considerations. A similar idea is supported by further evidence that ‘checklists’ can improve the quality of expert decisions in a range of domains by ensuring that important steps or considerations aren’t missed when people are feeling (d) relaxed. For example, treating patients in intensive care can require hundreds of small actions per day, and one small error could cost a life. Using checklists to ensure that no crucial steps are missed has proved to be remarkably (e) effective in a range of medical contexts, from preventing live infections to reducing pneumonia.

* parole: 가석방 ** salient: 두드러진 *** pneumonia: 폐렴







답:   

 

 

43. 주어진 글 (A)에 이어질 내용을 순서에 맞게 배열한 것으로 가장 적절한 것은?

(A)

“Hailey, be careful!” Camila yelled uneasily, watching her sister carrying a huge cake to the table. “Don’t worry, Camila,” Hailey responded, smiling. Camila relaxed only when Hailey had safely placed the cake on the party table. “Dad will be here shortly. What gift did (a) you buy for his birthday?” Camila asked out of interest. “Dad will be surprised to find out what it is!” Hailey answered with a wink.

(B)
“Dad, these glasses can help correct your red-green color blindness,” said Hailey. He slowly put them on, and stared at the birthday presents on the table. Seeing vivid red and green colors for the first time ever, he started to cry. “Incredible! Look at those wonderful colors!” He shouted in amazement. Hailey told him in tears, “Dad, I’m glad you can now finally enjoy the true beauty of rainbows and roses. Red represents love and green represents health. You deserve both.” Camila nodded, seeing how happy (b) her gift of the glasses had made their dad.

(C)
“Happy birthday! You’re fifty today, Dad. We love you!” Camila said before (c) her sister handed him a small parcel. When he opened it, he discovered a pair of glasses inside. “Hailey, Dad doesn’t have eyesight problems,” Camila said, puzzled. “Actually Camila, I recently found out he has long been suffering from color blindness. He’s kept it a secret so as not to worry us,” Hailey explained.

(D)
“I bet (d) you bought a wallet or a watch for him,” Camila said. In reply, Hailey answered, “No. I bought something much more personal. By the way, there’s something (e) you should know about Dad...” They were suddenly interrupted by the doorbell ringing. It was their dad and they were overjoyed to see him. “My lovely ladies, thank you for inviting me to your place for my birthday.” He walked in joyfully, hugging his daughters. They all walked into the dining room, where he was greeted with a rainbow-colored birthday cake and fifty red roses.







답:   

 

 

44. 밑줄 친 (a)~(e) 중에서 가리키는 대상이 나머지 넷과 다른 것은?

(A)

“Hailey, be careful!” Camila yelled uneasily, watching her sister carrying a huge cake to the table. “Don’t worry, Camila,” Hailey responded, smiling. Camila relaxed only when Hailey had safely placed the cake on the party table. “Dad will be here shortly. What gift did (a) you buy for his birthday?” Camila asked out of interest. “Dad will be surprised to find out what it is!” Hailey answered with a wink.

(B)
“Dad, these glasses can help correct your red-green color blindness,” said Hailey. He slowly put them on, and stared at the birthday presents on the table. Seeing vivid red and green colors for the first time ever, he started to cry. “Incredible! Look at those wonderful colors!” He shouted in amazement. Hailey told him in tears, “Dad, I’m glad you can now finally enjoy the true beauty of rainbows and roses. Red represents love and green represents health. You deserve both.” Camila nodded, seeing how happy (b) her gift of the glasses had made their dad.

(C)
“Happy birthday! You’re fifty today, Dad. We love you!” Camila said before (c) her sister handed him a small parcel. When he opened it, he discovered a pair of glasses inside. “Hailey, Dad doesn’t have eyesight problems,” Camila said, puzzled. “Actually Camila, I recently found out he has long been suffering from color blindness. He’s kept it a secret so as not to worry us,” Hailey explained.

(D)
“I bet (d) you bought a wallet or a watch for him,” Camila said. In reply, Hailey answered, “No. I bought something much more personal. By the way, there’s something (e) you should know about Dad...” They were suddenly interrupted by the doorbell ringing. It was their dad and they were overjoyed to see him. “My lovely ladies, thank you for inviting me to your place for my birthday.” He walked in joyfully, hugging his daughters. They all walked into the dining room, where he was greeted with a rainbow-colored birthday cake and fifty red roses.







답:   

 

 

45. 윗글에 관한 내용으로 적절하지 않은 것은?

(A)

“Hailey, be careful!” Camila yelled uneasily, watching her sister carrying a huge cake to the table. “Don’t worry, Camila,” Hailey responded, smiling. Camila relaxed only when Hailey had safely placed the cake on the party table. “Dad will be here shortly. What gift did (a) you buy for his birthday?” Camila asked out of interest. “Dad will be surprised to find out what it is!” Hailey answered with a wink.

(B)
“Dad, these glasses can help correct your red-green color blindness,” said Hailey. He slowly put them on, and stared at the birthday presents on the table. Seeing vivid red and green colors for the first time ever, he started to cry. “Incredible! Look at those wonderful colors!” He shouted in amazement. Hailey told him in tears, “Dad, I’m glad you can now finally enjoy the true beauty of rainbows and roses. Red represents love and green represents health. You deserve both.” Camila nodded, seeing how happy (b) her gift of the glasses had made their dad.

(C)
“Happy birthday! You’re fifty today, Dad. We love you!” Camila said before (c) her sister handed him a small parcel. When he opened it, he discovered a pair of glasses inside. “Hailey, Dad doesn’t have eyesight problems,” Camila said, puzzled. “Actually Camila, I recently found out he has long been suffering from color blindness. He’s kept it a secret so as not to worry us,” Hailey explained.

(D)
“I bet (d) you bought a wallet or a watch for him,” Camila said. In reply, Hailey answered, “No. I bought something much more personal. By the way, there’s something (e) you should know about Dad...” They were suddenly interrupted by the doorbell ringing. It was their dad and they were overjoyed to see him. “My lovely ladies, thank you for inviting me to your place for my birthday.” He walked in joyfully, hugging his daughters. They all walked into the dining room, where he was greeted with a rainbow-colored birthday cake and fifty red roses.







답:   

 

 


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