[41～42] 다음 글을 읽고, 물음에 답하시오.
Aristotle did not think that all human beings should be allowed to engage in political activity: in his system, women, slaves, and foreigners were explicitly (a) excluded from the right to rule themselves and others. Nevertheless, his basic idea that politics is a unique collective activity that is directed at certain (b) common goals and ends still resonates today. But which ends? Many thinkers and political figures since the ancient world have developed different ideas about the goals that politics can or should achieve. This approach is known as political moralism.
For moralists, political life is a branch of ethics ― or moral philosophy ― so it is (c) unsurprising that there are many philosophers in the group of moralistic political thinkers. Political moralists argue that politics should be directed toward achieving substantial goals, or that political arrangements should be organized to (d) protect certain things. Among these things are political values such as justice, equality, liberty, happiness, fraternity, or national self-determination. At its most radical, moralism produces descriptions of ideal political societies known as Utopias, named after English statesman and philosopher Thomas More’s book Utopia, published in 1516, which imagined an ideal nation. Utopian political thinking dates back to the ancient Greek philosopher Plato’s book the Republic, but it is still used by modern thinkers such as Robert Nozick to explore ideas. Some theorists consider Utopian political thinking to be a (e) promising undertaking, since it has led in the past to justifications of totalitarian violence. However, at its best, Utopian thinking is part of a process of striving toward a better society, and many thinkers use it to suggest values to be pursued or protected.
* resonate: 공명하다, 울리다 ** fraternity: 동포애, 우애
41. 윗글의 제목으로 가장 적절한 것은?
① A Road to Becoming a Great Political Philosopher
② Toward Genuine Liberty, Beyond Fear and Violence
③ Moralistic Approach in Politics: In Pursuit of Ideal Values
④ How to Identify the Historical Root of Political Moralists
⑤ Why Philosophers Tend to Be Moralists: The Fate of Philosophy
42. 밑줄 친 (a)～(e) 중에서 문맥상 낱말의 쓰임이 적절하지 않은 것은? [3점]
① (a) ② (b) ③ (c) ④ (d) ⑤ (e)